Weather on Jupiter and Saturn may be driven by different forces than on Earth

Folks , I hate to say "told you so" , but FINALLY , mainstream science has acknowledged that the weather on the surface of Jupiter and Saturn maybe driven primarily , by internal factors , rather than the energy from the Sun !!

The inner Suns of the gas giant planets Jupiter and Saturn (or should we say , failed Suns ??) are the "factors" driving the weather on the surface of these planets .

Now applying the principle that "The same laws of nature MUST apply to ALL planets , anywhere in the Universe" , it logically follows that even the inner Sun of our Earth is driving climate here on the Earth's surface , just that our planet being closer to the Sun gets affected more by the energy emitted from the external Sun ,than the influence of the inner Sun on the climate on Earth's surface .

**Truth be told , even the weather of distant Jupiter & Saturn is affected by the energy from the external Sun , but to a much lesser degree , than if affects the climate on Earth's surface .

Therefore , to summarise , like I've said before on this forum - Climate on the surface of each planet is an INTERPLAY of 2 main factors , the energy emanating from the external Sun AND the emissions of the planet's Inner Sun , from the Polar openings of the planet .

Isn't it amazing that our Hollow Planet Theory has such an IMPORTANT role to play in understanding the climate on the surface of each planet ? This also means that ALL climate models currently being followed , are INCOMPLETE , because they just do NOT factor the role of the Inner Sun , OR even it's emissions via the Polar openings - at all :))

Weather on Jupiter and Saturn may be driven by different forces than on Earth

by Bob Yirka ,

Credit: CC0 Public Domain

A trio of researchers, two with Harvard University, the other the University of Alberta, has found evidence that weather on Saturn and Jupiter may be driven by dramatically different forces than weather on Earth. In their paper published in the journal Science Advances, Rakesh Kumar Yadav, Moritz Heimpel and Jeremy Bloxham describe computer simulations showing that major weather systems on Jupiter and Saturn might be driven by internal rather than external forces, resulting in outcomes such as the formation of large anticyclones like Jupiter's famous red spot.

Weather on Earth is primarily driven by processes that take place in a thin layer of the atmosphere near the planet's surface. For many years, it has been thought that similar processes drive weather on other planets, such as Jupiter and Saturn. In this new effort, the researchers demonstrate that such theories may be wrong.

The work involved creating two simulations to mimic conditions on Jupiter and Saturn. Rather than assuming weather patterns are driven by turbulence just above the surface, the researchers programmed their simulations to take into account turbulent convection occurring in spherical shells as they rotate. In one such simulation, which they called the "thin shell" approach, the simulation was used to reproduce what happens with convection layers on gas giants such as Saturn and Jupiter—events they note have very little interaction with the planet's magnetic field. They found that the simulation showed cyclones, zonal jets and anticyclones forming spontaneously on both Jupiter and Saturn. The second simulation, which they called the "thick shell" approach, was programmed to mimic the interactions by the planet's inner dynamo and the outer hydrodynamic layer. It showed plumes being ejected from the magnetic layer, which gave rise to what they describe as pancake-shaped weather patterns close to the surface.

The researchers suggest that some of the weather patterns on both planets are likely driven by jet streams and processes below the surface. They also suggest their simulations show that the famous red spot may have formed when the planet's dynamo region set off processes that resulted in the production of large anticyclones in the atmosphere.


Folks , there is now even more compelling evidence of watery plumes bursting forth from the Polar regions of Jupiter's moon Europa and Saturn's moon Enceladus :-

More evidence for watery plumes on Europa

Posted by Paul Scott Anderson in Space | May 18, 2020

Scientists in Europe have found more yet evidence for water vapor plumes on Jupiter’s ocean moon Europa.

Bright geyser-like vertical spray of water with planet and stars in background.

Artist’s concept of water vapor plumes on Europa, the smallest of Jupiter’s 4 large Galilean moons. Image via ASA/ ESA/ K. Retherford/ SwRI/ Science .

The huge plumes of water vapor erupting through enormous cracks in the surface of Saturn’s moon Enceladus were quickly found by the Cassini spacecraft after it began orbiting Saturn in 2004. They’re thought to arise from a salty global ocean below the moon’s ice crust. Over the past few years, evidence has been accumulating for watery plumes on Jupiter’s large ocean moon Europa, too. It’s taking longer to put the pieces of the puzzle together, but – although still not definitive – the data for plumes on Europa are beginning to look compelling. They indicate that geyser-like plumes erupt from Europa’s surface, at least occasionally. On May 12, 2020, researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research (MPS) in Germany and the European Space Agency (ESA) reported yet more evidence for water plumes on Europa.

The new work supports previous studies that suggested that – although it wasn’t recognized at the time – NASA’s Galileo spacecraft glimpsed one of these plumes during a flyby of Europa in 2000. The researchers published their work in Geophysical Research Letters in late April.

Making the case for plumes on Europa has been a long process, since, from the evidence gathered so far, they are seemingly intermittent. In contrast, the plumes on Enceladus were large and easy to see and, at least at the time, were erupting continuously. MPS scientist Elias Roussos said in a statement:

However, various theories, models, and sporadic observations suggest that Europa, too, can exhibit plumes.

Jupiter’s ocean moon Europa, as seen by Galileo. This image is a combination of images from 1995 and 1998. Scientists have found yet more evidence for water vapor plumes erupting from its icy surface, most likely originating in the ocean below. Image via NASA/ JPL-Caltech/ SETI Institute.

How did the researchers find further evidence for Europa’s plumes?

They used computer simulations to replicate the data from the Energetic Particles Detector (EPD) onboard Galileo during a flyby of Europa in 2000. EPD recorded the distribution of high-energy protons trapped in Jupiter’s powerful magnetic field, which is 20 times stronger than Earth’s. Europa orbits within that magnetic field. Back in 2000, the detector recorded fewer protons during the flyby than had been expected. At the time, it was thought that Europa itself was blocking the view of the detector.

But now the new study suggests something else. The researchers modeled the movements of protons during the flyby, in an attempt to reproduce the original results from Galileo. But – surprise – they found that the only model that matched the results was one where a water vapor plume was between Europa and the detector.

Composite photos from the Hubble Space Telescope and the Galileo spacecraft, showing a suspected plume erupting in the same place on Europa in 2014 and 2016. Image via NASA/ ESA/ W. Sparks (STScI)/ USGS Astrogeology Science Center/ JPL-Caltech.

The plume would have disrupted both Europa’s extremely thin atmosphere and the magnetic field. This also would have changed the amount and behavior of the energetic protons. When the protons collided with uncharged particles from Europa’s atmosphere or plume, they took electrons from them, becoming uncharged particles themselves. As Hans Huybrighs from ESA, lead author of the new study, said:

This means they are no longer trapped in Jupiter’s magnetic field and can leave the system at high speed.

Therefore, the decreased number of protons detected during the flyby could be explained by a water vapor plume.

Last year, it was reported that water vapor itself had been directly detected above Europa’s surface by researchers using the W. M. Keck Observatory on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. According to NASA scientist Lucas Paganini:

Essential chemical elements (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur) and sources of energy, two of three requirements for life, are found all over the solar system. But the third – liquid water – is somewhat hard to find beyond Earth. While scientists have not yet detected liquid water directly, we’ve found the next best thing: water in vapor form.

The water vapor signal was faint, however, and only seen once in 17 nights of observations in 2016 and 2017. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) also took images in 2014 and 2016 that appear to show a plume in the same location. But even that wasn’t considered quite conclusive enough.

Saturn’s moon Enceladus was confirmed to have water vapor plumes by the Cassini spacecraft. This stunning photo shows then erupting through cracks in the ice crust at the moon’s south pole. Evidence suggests they are more active than those on Europa. Image via NASA Science.

Based on this and previous studies, the Europan plumes are probably less frequent and maybe smaller than those on Enceladus. But that doesn’t make them any less exciting. If they occur in a manner similar to the ones on Enceladus, then they probably originate from the subsurface ocean. Both Europa and Enceladus are now known to have global oceans below their outer ice crusts.

Cassini was able to sample the plumes at Enceladus, and found water vapor, methane, salts and organic molecules. It also found evidence for current active hydrothermal vents – just like in Earth’s oceans – on the ocean floor of Enceladus. The organics by themselves don’t prove yet there is life there, but combined with the hydrothermal clues, they point to a likely habitable environment in Enceladus’ ocean. Is the same true for Europa?

The Juno probe currently orbiting Jupiter isn’t able to conduct flybys of Europa, but NASA’s upcoming Europa Clipper mission, scheduled to launch in 2023, will make many such flybys. If the exact locations of any plumes can be determined beforehand, then Europa Clipper should be able to fly right through them, just like Cassini did at Enceladus. The composition could then be determined, and thus scientists could learn more about conditions in the ocean itself. ESA’s Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer (JUICE) mission to Jupiter, launching in 2022, will also be able to study Europa in more detail.

Although Europa is slightly smaller than our moon, its global subsurface ocean is estimated to contain more water than all the oceans on Earth combined. If there is any hydrothermal activity on the ocean bottom, as on Earth and Enceladus, that would increase the chances of the ocean being habitable, despite being completely hidden from sunlight by the ice crust. Even in deep oceans on Earth, a wide variety of life thrives around hot hydrothermal vents, with no sunlight needed.

The evidence for plumes on Europa seems stronger than ever, but absolute certainty may have to wait for either the Europa Clipper or JUICE mission. Confirmation would be exciting, allowing scientists a way to sample and analyze water coming from the ocean without having to drill through the ice (still a long way off), just like at Enceladus. And then, just maybe, we will be much closer to to answering the biggest question of all: is there life o

n Europa?

Bottom line: Scientists in Europe have found more evidence for water vapor plumes on Europa.

Source: An Active Plume Eruption on Europa During Galileo Flyby E26 as Indicated by Energetic Proton Depletions


List members , on this upcoming winter Solstice of 21st Dec. 2020 , there will occur a RAREST OF THE RARE conjunction between Jupiter and Saturn...while it maybe off topic , I still want to mention - this celestial event has MAJOR Astrological implications for the world (those interested in Astrology may want to check that out) :-

Don’t Miss It: Jupiter, Saturn Will Look Like Double Planet for First Time Since Middle Ages

TOPICS:AstronomyJupiterRice UniversitySaturn

By Jade Boyd, Rice University November 22, 2020

Jupiter and Saturn

Just after sunset on the evening of December 21, 2020, Jupiter and Saturn will appear closer together in Earth’s night sky than they have been since the Middle Ages, offering people the world over a celestial treat to ring in the winter solstice.

“Alignments between these two planets are rather rare, occurring once every 20 years or so, but this conjunction is exceptionally rare because of how close the planets will appear to one another,” said Rice University astronomer Patrick Hartigan. “You’d have to go all the way back to just before dawn on March 4, 1226, to see a closer alignment between these objects visible in the night sky.”

Jupiter and Saturn have been approaching one another in Earth’s sky since the summer. From December 16-25, the two will be separated by less than the diameter of a full moon.

Jupiter Saturn Conjunction

A view showing how the Jupiter-Saturn conjunction will appear in a telescope pointed toward the western horizon at 6 p.m. CST, December 21, 2020. The image is adapted from graphics by open-source planetarium software Stellarium. Credit: This work, “jupsat1,” is adapted from Stellarium by Patrick Hartigan, used under GPL-2.0, and provided under CC BY 4.0 courtesy of Patrick Hartigan

“On the evening of closest approach on December 21 they will look like a double planet, separated by only 1/5th the diameter of the full moon,” said Hartigan, a professor of physics and astronomy. “For most telescope viewers, each planet and several of their largest moons will be visible in the same field of view that evening.”

Though the best viewing conditions will be near the equator, the event will be observable anywhere on Earth, weather-permitting. Hartigan said the planetary duo will appear low in the western sky for about an hour after sunset each evening.

“The further north a viewer is, the less time they’ll have to catch a glimpse of the conjunction before the planets sink below the horizon,” he said. Fortunately, the planets will be bright enough to be viewed in twilight, which may be the best time for many U.S. viewers to observe the conjunction.

“By the time skies are fully dark in Houston, for example, the conjunction will be just 9 degrees above the horizon,” Hartigan said. “Viewing that would be manageable if the weather cooperates and you have an unobstructed view to the southwest.”

But an hour after sunset, people looking skyward in New York or London will find the planets even closer to the horizon, about 7.5 degrees and 5.3 degrees respectively. Viewers there, and in similar latitudes, would do well to catch a glimpse of the rare astronomical sight as soon after sunset as possible, he said.

Those who prefer to wait and see Jupiter and Saturn this close together and higher in the night sky will need to stick around until March 15, 2080, Hartigan said. After that, the pair won’t make such an appearance until sometime after the year 2400.