Mexican Aztecs are Sarpa (Serpent) race in Mahabharata ; Amazing similarities of Mayas & Hindu Nagas

Dean , I am conscious that not everyone in this group might have so much interest in exploring the potential linkage between native American civilisations and ancient Vedic India , so I opened this separate thread for those interested in exploring this linkage more deeply . Also , to your specific question about Red Fort of Delhi - well that is just a 300 year old fort .

**The ancient fort of the Pandavas , Indraprastha , is now known in Hindi language , as "Purana Qila" or the old fort , of Delhi , where the ruins of that ancient palace are believed to lie buried . The city of Delhi has grown all around that area and millions of people have been residing there , so any sort of systematic archaeological excavation is simply ruled out .

**As per the Mahabharata epic, there used to be a very dense forest (Khandavprastha) , where New Delhi is located today. That forest , with all it's creatures was burnt down by Arjun and Krishna , due to some very convoluted story about a curse that place carried . Anyhow , the city of Indraprastha was built , where earlier that dense forest had been...strangely , now 5,000 years later , that part of Delhi has still been left in ruins and ironically has been returned to the animals , since Delhi zoo was created at that exact same spot !

Aztecs in Mexico are Sarpa (Serpent/Reptilian) race in Mahabharata

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Aztecs in Mexico are civilization of Nahuatl-speaking groups living in central Mexico and much of their mythology is similar to that of other Mesoamerican cultures.
Their race is mentioned as Sarpas in mahabharata, who were saved by a sage named Astika during a slaughter done on their race.
Aztecs in Mexico Civilization
After Bali donated his land to Vaman, he landed in shores of South America and developed a new settlement there.
His followers stayed there and as the population increased they established more and more colonies such as Sutala, Atala, and Talatala.
People residing in these colonies were known as ‘Talatalak (residing in talatala)’. This name corrupted to ‘Toltec’.
These Toltecs still exist in Mexico and South America.

Maya was an Asura engineer, who built three cities for Bali.
Asura does not mean demon. It means ‘the one who is not sura, or one who has magical or phenomenol powers (according to Rig Veda)‘.
Bali was king of these three cities and so was called as ‘Tripuradhipa’ or ‘Tribhuwanak
means developer of three cities and hence it may be the name applied toMaya. Theses names have been corrupted to Tiahuanaco in the South America.
Patala was established by race of humans called as ‘Sarpa’ (sarpa does not mean snake here), who went there on behest of Vaman to keep a watch on Bali’s activities.
Total seven colonies were new; therefore they were called as ‘Navatala’. [Nava means new and Tala means colony].
This word ‘Navatala’, in a corrupt form as ‘Nahuatl’, still exists in the South America. People residing in Mexico and around are known as ‘Nava’ and their language is called as ‘Nahuatl’.

**In Mahabharata, Sarpa (snake) race were massacred in India at the time of Janamejaya, who ruled around 3100 BC.
This ‘Sarpa Yagam‘ was done to avenge his father (Parikshit) death, which was caused by a sarpa called Takshaka.
These people were saved by one seer named as ‘Astika ’.
When the slaughter was on and after it many people of that race returned back to South America. They felt that Astika gave them rebirth and so they supposed themselves to be the sons of seer Astika and so called them to be Astek (meaning ‘of Astika’). These descendents still reside there and call themselves Aztec.
This Sarpa Yagam (or Yajna) is wrongly depicted as killing of snakes in fire.
** Infact, according to Aztec mythology, the Mexica/Aztec were said to be guided by their god Huitzilopochtli, meaning “Left-handed Hummingbird” or “Hummingbird from the South.
At an island in Lake Texcoco, they saw an eagle holding a rattlesnake in its talons, perched on a nopal cactus. This vision fulfilled a prophecy telling them that they should establish their new home on that spot (Eagle could be symbol of Garuda as sent by Vamana).
The Aztecs
built their city of Tenochtitlan on that site, building a great artificial island, which today is in the center of Mexico City. This legendary vision is pictured on the Coat of Arms of Mexico.

aztec tenochtitlan

There
are Nahuas people in South America who worship snakes. Nahua appears to
be a corrupt form of Nahusha. Nahusha was a king from Kuru dynasty in India. He
was cursed to be a snake. He remained on the earth as a snake till Pandavas came and was released from snake-state (does not mean actual snake, but an immovable or crawling state without limbs) after talking to Yudhishthira
(This location is in present day Pakistan). Descendents or followers of Nahusha might have reached South America and propagated snake-worship there.

The Yakshas came down to Mexico to build pyramids and a city names Yaxila.
Aztecs carried human sacrifices to mexico (which were later banned in India) and also believed in dog burial and dogs are guards of human souls.

Mayan City Yaxchilan (Yaksha-Sila), in Mexico - Indian Connection - Arch...

Mayan city Yaxchilan of mexico connected to Yakshas & Yakshinis of India, Guards in Wat Phra Kaew Buddhist templ...

Aztecs also worshipped the turquoise-colored god Xiuhtecuhtli, as the 1st Lord of Creation and the god of Fire, Day and Heat.

Fire (Agni) worshipped as God across Religions - Religions

Fire worshipped as God Agni in Vedas, Xiuhtecuhtli by Aztecs, Manco Capac by Incas, Yahweh in Judaism, Goddess V...

References :

Nahusha

In Hindu mythology, Nahusha (Sanskrit: नहुष) was a king of the Aila dynasty and the 3,698,256th Indra. He was th...

Nahuatl

Nahuatl (English: /ˈnɑːwɑːtəl/;[4] Nahuatl pronunciation: [ˈnaːwatɬ] (listen)),[cn 1] known historically as Azte...

Related Articles :

https://www.speakingtree.in/blog/amazing-similarities-between-mayas-and-hindu-nagas

Amazing Similarities between Mayas and Hindu Nagas

( The first part of this article is Are Mayas, Indian Nagas?)

  1. Strange co incidence: Kali Yuga 3102 BC and Maya Yuga beginning 3114 BC

  2. Maya appearance: Maya people of Central America look exactly like Manippur or Nagaland people.

  3. Maya architecture resembled Pallava and South East Asian monuments

  4. Justifying their name NAGAS (Sanskrit name for snake) Snake Symbol is found every wherein Naga buildings.

“Maya”-- was the divine architect in Hindu mythology. Justifying the name Maya, we see a lot of huge buildings in the Maya countries Mexico, Honduras, Belize and Guatemala.

  1. 1000 pillar mandap is mentioned in Vedas and it is found in Madurai and other places. We hear about 1000 pillar mandap in Chichen Itza at the tip of Yucatan peninsula.

7.Patchouli is a game played by both Mayas and Indians

8.Tamil word catamaran is used in Mexico, where Mayas flourished for centuries.

Migration Route: Sri Lanka-South East Asia—Central America—South America was the Nga migratory route. All these places are called Naka Loka (Nagaland) in Tamil and Sanskrit literature.

Indus river port Patala was used for travel to the countries down below Indian peninsula and so they were called Patala Loka.

VIDEO : सुबह का नाश्ता करने के फायदे

00:10 / 04:04

  1. Nagas are mentioned in Vedas ( Pancavimsa Brahmana--iv.9,4 ) and they are an ancient race

Nagas in Nala Damayanthi story in Mahabharata and Sangam Tamil literature mention special type of clothes made by the Nagas.

  1. Over twenty Naga poets composed Tamil poems which were in the Tamil Sangam anthology.

Sri Lanka Nagas and SE Asia Nagas freely mingled with Non Naga races. Agastya Rishi married a Naga princes by name Yasomati in South East Asia. Rig Vedic Agastya was different who married Lopamudra, a princess of Vidharba.( Vedic civilization spread far south beyond Vidharba during
Rig Vedic days. This explodes the Westerner’s myth of Aryan-Dravidian divisions).

14.Mahabharata period Nagas married their women to Arjuna (Ulupi and Chitrangatha) One of them is a Tamil also known as Miss Alli Rani.

  1. Lord Krishna was Anti Naga and Indra was Pro Naga, according to Hindu scriptures.

  2. Krishna’s two clashes with Nagas: Khandava Vana (Gondwana land) and Kaliya Marthan (dancing on the head of a snake)

  3. Arjuna’s grandson Parikshit’s assassination culminated in the migration of Nagas outside India.

  4. Janamejayan’s massacre was stopped by the good offices of Astika and Jaratkaru.

19.Brahmin’s
peace deal was worked out on the banks of Narmadha (Mahismati) and Brahmins remember this every day in their Sandhyavandana Mantra.

The Padma Purana says of the seven infernal regions Mahatala, Rasatala and Patala are occupied by Nagas and Danavas. The suffix ATL in many Naga names may be ATALA.

  1. Paramapatha Sopana Patam/picture is a Snake and Ladder game played by Tamils and Telugus, where in all the Naga leader pictures are drawn.

22.Ophir—Oviyar---
Chitra---Painter-- is another name of Nagas. Probably they wore Tattoos
of snakes on their bodies. Ophites (snake worshippers) is mentioned in Greek literature. Hippolytus and Clement of Alexandria mention this sect.

Sarpa Rakja (Rani) is mentioned in Pancha Vimsa Brahmana. Aligi and Viligi are mentioned in Atharva Veda. Aligi and Viligi are found in Sumerian clay tablets. They may be Nagas/Mayas. Probably Krishna devotees wanted to ridicule them by depicting them as snakes with their names written. When one reaches a snake square by rolling the
dices, the player gets negative points and go to the bottom of the board.

  1. American born Swami B. V. Tripurari asks, "What mysterious psychological law would have caused Asians, and Americans to both use the umbrella as a sign of royalty, to invent the same games, imagine similar cosmologies, and attribute the same colours to the different directions?"

Hindus and Mayas use umbrella as a royal symbol which is mentioned in Sangam Tamil literature and Sanskrit literature in thousands of places.

Hindus, Jains, Buddhists attribute four different colours to East, South, West and North. Mayas follow it.Maya colours :East-red, South- yellow, West- black, North- white. It is slightly different from Buddhists and Hindus. Shiva’s five faces are attributed with colours. Buddhists colours for directions was even mentioned by a Muslim traveller like Albiruni. Mahabharata attributes four colours for four Yugas (white,yellow,red and black).

23.Sanskrit
Names for Towns: Guatemala =Gauthama alaya; Tiwanaku= Deva Naga;Tikal=Trikala,Teotihuacha- n=Deva Takshan,Mitla=Mithila, Orinoco= Ori Nagan, Machu Pichu= Macha Pucham (exactly looking like fish wall. There is one more place with the same name in the Himalayas/Nepal, Jaina
Island, Mani, Copan= Sopana,Cholula=Chola,Aryballus- = Arya Bala, Chetumal=Ketumala Dwipa=Guatemala,Aztec=Astika (Rishi who saved Nagas). Loads of Sanskrit and Tamil names can be derived by a patient researcher. We can justify it by observing waves of migrations. Tula, Yacatehctli (Yaga Deva Thali) Yaxchilan (Yaksha Seelan) also sound like Sanskrit names.

  1. Over seventeen Egyptian kings who lived 3500 years ago had the same title Ramses.It may be Rama Seshan (Vishnu) or Ramesan (Shiva). Egyptian pharaohs Ramses heads are decorated with snake like Lord Shiva’s head. Vishnu had it (snake Adi Seshan) as his bed.

  2. Swastika, elephant, lotus: Hindu motifs lotus, Swastika and elephant are found in Maya sculptures. Americas have
    not got elephants. Millions of years ago mammoths only roamed American north.

  3. Maya God Quetza coatl (Plumed Serpent) may be a distorted word meaning Garuda Sathru (enemy of eagle).

Fire is Born: One of the kings who ruled around 378 AD is translated as
Fire is born. Draupadi, Rajashani Chauhans and Cheras and Velirs of Tamil Nadu say that they were are Fire born. They belong to Agni Kula. Nagas may belong to Agni kula.

  1. The Maya king who ruled around 700 AD is called Kan Maxx which is nothing but Maha Nakan/ great snake (Kan is snake in Mayan language, Na(kan), Maxx is Maha)

Palenque
(Tamil word Palingu): One of the town names is Palengue. There is a stone temple which looks like marble temple. Palingu is a Tamil word for
Marble, Mirror, Crystal etc. Ther eis no doubt that Tamil Nagas also were part of the migration. One of the twenty Tamil Naga poets is Maruthan Ila Nagan who has contributed a lot.

29.The very script of Mayas is round which looks like Palalva Grantha.

http://ancientindianwisdom.com/history-and-timeline/footprints-of-vedic-culture-in-the-world

Footprints of Vedic Culture in the World

By Professor Lata Dani

Abstract

Creador y Formador, del corazon del
God and the Creator of
Cielo, del corazón de la tierra.
The heavens and of the earth.
………………………………
Que amanezca, que llegue la aurora!
May we wake up to the dawn and in thy light
Danos muchos buenos caminos,caminos planos!
Lead us on to the right and the blessed path
Que los pueblos tengan paz, mucha paz, y sean felices:
So, all the people may have peace, great peace, and happiness
y danos buena vida y útil existencia
Bless us with good life and a meaningful existence.

Maya Calendar

Thus
the Mayas pray to the heart of the Earth, the sky, to the creator and the protector to grant them the essential strength, which comes only to an enlightened soul to show the way to work for universal peace. They pray for divine guidance for adopting the path of peace for humanity, peace for the universe and human welfare.

Like the Hindus they pray:

Tamaso ma jyotirgamya – lead us from darkness to light.

The Hindus seek God’s blessings not for themselves only but for the entire universe. “Sarvepi Sukhinah santu, Sarve santu niramaya Sarve bhadrani pashyantu,ma kashit dukhamapunuyat.”

And pray for Peace: Om shantih, shantih, shantih.

Most of the Indigenous cultures of the world have similar prayers that shows their world view and they seem to propagate the concept of “Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam”. This world belongs to the almighty who assumes different names in different cultures yet remains the same. Their vision
of life is holistic and it includes everything not just humans but all living beings visible and invisible and they pray for peace for all. Though many indigenous cultures grew independently, they remained broadly similar in their –
Conceptualization of Nature
Nature Worship
Idolatry
Forms of Worship
Rituals Customs and Festivals

Many Indigenous cultures bear remarkable similarity to the ancient Indian Vedic culture they are tracing their roots to India. For them Dharma is a way of life adopted by the society for general good. The sanatana dharma (something which is forever) is known as Hinduism. It is
not founded by any person or persons it rests on universal and eternal spiritual principles and not on beliefs and dogmas. Hinduism is a science it rests on impersonal universal truth. Thus it grows faster and
gets richer. It continues to explore divine reality. It is not a closed
system. Hence we find many similarities between World’s ancient indigenous cultures.
The purpose of this paper is to trace existence of the ancient Vedic Cultures in other remote parts of the world. Some of these cultures which bare great similarities with the Vedic culture are:

  1. Latin American Cultures : Maya and the Aztecs
  2. Maoris of New Zealand
  3. Druids of Ireland
  4. The Asatru
  5. Roma Gypsies
  6. African Tribes
  7. Zulu.
    It is not possible to deal with all of the above cultures in the short compass of this article, hence this paper deals with only the first four
    cultures mentioned above.

.

Read More.....

Article

“There are many ways to get to the mountain summit,
But there is only one summit. There are many religions,
But only one creator”.
There are many deities but there is only one God and we are all His creations. The ancient Indian sages gave us the precept of Vasudhaiva Kutumbakum-which means that the world is one family. Mankind whether the
Aztecs, the Incas, the Mayas of yore, or whether the Druids of Ireland,
the Romuas, or the Maoris, whether the tribal people the world over or the people of India who represent the biggest indigenous culture, all have a similar way of life, allowing, of course, variations caused by geography. They have the same attitude to Divinity Nature and to life. The have the same conceptualization of nature, the tendency to see divinity reflected in natural forms and worship. They have deities which
are symbolic of different aspects of nature. The indigenous people have
always worshipped and still continue to worship the incarnations of three forces of Nature: Creator (known to the Hindus as Brahma), the Preserver (Vishnu) and the Destroyer (Mahesh or Shiva). They have broadly similar mythology, similar creation story, and similar way of life, customs, traditions and social structure which allows a stratification of society, and so on. A study of these ancient indigenous cultures reveals this similarity.

This article is an attempt to bring out the similarity between the ancient Indian Vedic culture of The Hindus and the Mayas of Guatemala and the Latin American countries, The Aztecs of Mexico, the Maoris of New Zealand, the Druids of Ireland and the Asatrus of Europe
Hinduism is known as the sanatana dharma. It is not founded by any person or persons it rests on universal and eternal spiritual principles
and not on beliefs and dogmas.
Hinduism is a science .It continues to explore divine reality. It is not
a closed system it rests on impersonal universal truth. Thus it grows faster and gets richer.

  1. Satya-brahma/atman- The ultimate spiritual truth or reality.
  2. The brahamanda (the cosmic universe).
  3. The nature of brahmanda and its cyclic duration
  4. Karma-sansar mukti
  5. Para-brahman and apara-brahamn
  6. Ishwara-deva devata avatara (deities)
  7. Worship of ishwara-upasana
  8. yoga-paths to divine reality

A study of various indigenous cultures shows that those societies and
their beliefs are based on principles similar to those mentioned above.
These similarities lead us to believe that they all have a common origin i.e. the Vedic culture which is the Sanatana (forever) and the oldest culture.

The Aztecs of Mexico

My Study of the Aztecs is based on Florentine Codex: 12 Book history of New Spain, by Fray Bernardino de Shahagun; Bancroft’s History of Mexico; Five Letters written by the
Spanish conquistador Cortez to the King of Spain; William Prescott’s History of the Conquest of Mexico; Works of Scholars like Wissler Clarke, George C Vaillant , Victor Von Hogan down to the present.

Who were the Aztecs ? The traditional history of the Aztecs begins with their coming out of their mythic land ‘Aztalan’ in the year of the Aztec calendar I tecpatl (one stone knife) which probably is II68 of the
Christian era. This event is depicted in one of their picture manuscript known as Borurini Codex.Pre-Columbian America was the home of
the so-called ‘Red Indian Tribes’ like the Aztecs, the Mayas, the Cherokees, the Iroquois and others. Anthropologists are widely agreed that the human race originated in the eastern hemisphere, in Africa and Asia but they do not agree on when and how humanity came to occupy the two major continents of the Western hemisphere, North and South America and their connecting link Central America. Physical anthropologists have
found that all Amerindians have similar body characteristics such as sharply limited blood types, skin colour, stocky build, dark eyes, coarse and straight head hair, rare baldness and graying and certain anomalies of fingerprints and teeth which are markedly similar to the Asians.

The Aztecs had made magnificent achievements in Astronomy, Mathematics, Architecture, Medicine and arts They were known for Architecture Jewelry ( Gold, Jade, and Turquoise Sculpture and textiles.
Hernando Cortes set foot on the Mexican shores in 1514; by 1522 the Aztec nation had lost its identity and was named New Spain. Cortes sent five letters to the Spanish emperor Charles V these letters he gave descriptions of the Aztec kingdom, its wealth and his conquest of this nation. As early as 1580 Bernardino de Shahagun a Franciscan friar had written the true history of the Aztec in his book called The History of Things.

The European scholars obviously looked at the Aztecs from their own of view. However these scholars agreed that the Aztec culture is not autochthonous and that these people had an eastern origin. William Prescott has hinted at the similarity between the Aztecs and the ‘Hindus
of India beyond the Ganges’. He has noted the mythological and religious similarities between the Indians i.e. the people of Bharat (India) in Asia. In 1940 Chamanlal published a book Hindu America which traces the similarities between Pre-Columbian American culture and that of the Hindus. The analogies in the forms of worship, social customs and
usages are quite impressive. He has supported his thesis by quoting competent authorities.

In modern times, archaeological excavations, readings of Mayan hieroglyphics and artifacts have vastly added to our knowledge of these Amerindian societies, the Aztecs, being one of them. Scholars in recent times have again hinted at the similarities between the Amerindian way of life, worship and religion and that of the Hindus. This, again, calls
for the study of the Aztec culture from the Indian (Hindu) point of view.

Today, known as Mestizo, the modern Aztecs live in absolute poverty. They are industrious people and earn their livelihood by the practice of
their native art. Aztec ceremonies ranging from pre-birth to post-death
form an interesting subject matter for comparative research. Aztec festivals too bear similarity with Hindu festivals.

To an Indian, the study of the Aztec society is an interesting experience. An Indian can easily understand the Aztec way of life, their
religion, customs and traditions simply because they are so similar to his own. He can comprehend things Cortes and Shahagun failed to understand. What they dumped as meaningless is intelligible to the Indians. It is a pity Cortes destroyed valuable records and books. These
could have thrown light on Indo Aztec relationship. Our study is now confined only to secondary and tertiary sources.

The study of the Aztec culture started with Fray Bernardino de Shahagun, a Franciscan friar and a scholar from Spain. In modern times the real study of the Aztec culture started with William Prescott’s History of the Conquest of Mexico published in 1934. Earlier Bancroft’s History of Mexico gave an account of Aztec history and people. Prescott’s study was carried forward by Wissler Clarke, George C Vaillant and Victor Von Hogan. Prescott has hinted at the similarities between the Aztecs and the Hindus. He has noted the religious and mythological similarities between the two. As the Aztecs continued to attract scholars, more and more studies came forward. Archaeological excavations have thrown new light on the Aztec Empire and the Aztec people. Scholars now agree that the Aztecs had an Indian or more precisely Vedic connection with India and they (and all Pagan cultures for that matter) had their origin in the Vedic Indian Culture. Thus the role of India as the donor culture is generally accepted.

A study of Aztec Mythology points to the Indo Aztec links especially Quetzalcoatl. However, some questions continue to torment us. The identity of Quetzalcoatl remains an enigma. It is possible that Quetzalcoatl the arch preceptor of the Aztecs was the Indian sage Astik who built the civilization at Tula for the Naga people who were estranged from their original homeland- India. Astika gave political asylum to the Nagas in Patala and it is generally believed that Patala was the American continent. Their protector and guide, Astika guarded the Nagas against the wrath of Janmejaya the king from the Pandava dynasty, who had vowed to destroy the entire race of the Nagas. The last
survivor of the Naga clan Taxaca escaped and hid himself under the seat
of Indra, (Tlaloc being the Mexican counterpart of Indra). Significantly Mexico has a place bearing the name Texcoco.

Who was this Quetzalcoatl? Where exactly was his original home in the
East? Where did he go after he was compelled to leave Tula? What is the
meaning of his promised return? Did he have any connection with one of the heroes of the Mahabharata, or the sage Astika? All these questions demand intensive research.

Similarly, the story of the chili pepper man who later became the son-in-law of the king of Tula and a hero after he returned from the battle is similar to the story of Arjuna the Pandava prince’s visit to Patala and his marriage to the Naga princess Ulupi. We need to probe the
identity of this chili pepper man and needs further probing.

There is also a remarkable similarity between the attitude to divinity and life held by the Aztecs and the Indians. As regards the religious philosophy, for both the Aztecs and the Indians, the cosmic order depended on a reciprocal relationship between humans and the gods,
maintained through elaborate ceremonies. Since humans needed favorable treatment from the gods in order to survive, rituals solicited, for example, the help of agricultural
deities in order to secure good harvests. For both the Aztecs and the Indians, the cosmic order depended on a reciprocal relationship between humans and the gods, maintained through elaborate ceremonies, rituals solicited, for example, help of agricultural deities in order to secure good harvests. Thus both practiced Idolatry and were similar in their conceptualization of nature in the form of gods and goddesses whom they worshipped with utmost reverence.
The Aztec (and the Maya) concept of creation is similar to that of the Indians. Both believed in the cycle of creation. Both believed that it took four attempts at creating the earth and mankind before the gods finally got everything right with the fifth attempt. Moreover, Hymn 121 of Book 10 in the Rig-Veda is similar to the description of creation as found in the Popol Vuh. In fact there are many similarities between the Vedic creation legend and that described in the Popol Vuh. These have been described in the book ‘How the Universe Was Created and Our Purpose
In it’ by Stephen Knapp.

The Aztecs and the Indians had a similar attitude to life and death. Both held that man owes his existence to the Supreme Being and were willing to surrender it to its source. They had similar concept of Heaven and Hell and had similar belief in Reincarnation of the soul. Aztec religion and mythology sanctified human sacrifice. The myth of the
creation of man tells us that the creator Quetzalcoatl poured his own blood over them. Consequently, according to the Aztecs mankind must pay back this primal sacrifice. The justification was that they were only returning to god what belonged to god in the first place. There are references to young men willingly offering themselves for the sacrificial altar. In the Aztec society, human sacrifice had social and religious sanction and this ritual was carried out amid great ceremony. The Bharatiya Sanskriti Kosh (Encyclopedia of Indian Culture in Marathi language) also tells us that in India human sacrifices were prevalent since the Vedic period. Later, the section of society, which insisted on
following the cruel practice, was expelled from the land. This section must have gone and settled in America. Apparently, in India too, human sacrifices were offered to retrieve hidden treasures, to ensure the longevity of a residential building, or a fortress. Such practices are prevalent even now in the remote countryside. Scholars feel that it is unfair to dismiss Aztecs as cannibals and to justify the cruelties they were made to suffer at the hands of Cortez who took upon himself the task of saving the Aztec souls from going to hell by either converting them to Christianity or just killing them.
Absolute faith in God and insistence on idol worship is the hallmark of both the Aztec and the Indian Dharma. Indo Aztec attitude to divinity also found reflection in their rituals, religious practices ceremonies and festivals. All festivals were necessarily religious in nature. This attitude also served as the basis for their calendar beautifully synchronized with the time cycle and the agricultural operations, for agriculture formed the basis of life. Many Aztec festivals bear similarity with Indian festivals as, for example, Baisakhi, Ugadi, Dashahara and Charakpuja. Ritualistic forms of worship are common to both these cultures. Rituals accompanied by fire worship, tying of the Tilmantli are very similar to the Indian marriage rituals.

Chaturvarnya Vyawastha

Both the Aztec and the Indian Dharma made provision for fourfold stratification of
the society or the Chaturvarnya Vyawastha as it is called in India. Both had a wider and an
all-comprehensive vision of life, which enabled them to have the all-pervasive concept of
the Four Yugas. They were able to look beyond mundane human existence bound in the
parentheses of life and death as the beginning and end of life. No, life did not end in death.
Death was perceived as the break between lives. Life was seen as a cycle, reaching its fullest
expression in the four Yugas-a wider cycle of existence. The belief in this wider cycle of life
formed the bedrock of their faith and it also formed the basis of their attitude to life and
death as it also shaped the nature of the different religious ceremonies associated with
birth and death.

Likewise the similarities between the deities worshipped by the Aztecs and the gods
of the Indian pantheon, their methods of worship and consequent customs and traditions
are very much similar.

The Mayas

The Hindu and the Maya civilizations date back to thousands of years and have many
similarities in their customs, traditions, philosophy of life and even religious practices and
rituals. Consequently even today, if you go to Guatemala, you feel as if you are in India i.e.
Bharat.this is because one thing that is most common between the two cultures is their
inherent spirituality.

The Spirituality of the Mayas:

Like the Hindu way of life, Spirituality is the basic characteristic of the Maya identity.
Their essential spirituality finds maximum expression in the Mayan ceremonies. Their
Spirituality can be seen in their beliefs, values, ideas, and mystical thoughts, which
determine their destiny. In other words they determine human existence in the cosmic
universe.

The Spirituality of the Maya has at its basis the principle that the existence of
Divinity is in the heart of the sky and the earth and it is present in each of the elements of
nature. Therefore, all that exists in nature and in the Universe is considered sacred as it is
only a part of the divinity or the Supreme Being -Ser Supremo. The Mayas consider human
existence as part of this nature and the Cosmic Universe. In their cosmic vision, the Mayas
see the mutual relationship between human life and the elements of Nature. Naturally, to them, nothing and no one is superior to the Supreme Being. The Spirituality of the Maya has ingrained in them the belief that all the things, all that exists in nature and in the Universe have to live in harmony with each of these elements, maintain an equilibrium, a balance with them. This permits the human beings to ensure their health and long life.

The Mayas have a concept of the Supreme Power which rules over the Universe and which pervades over the entire Universe. The Hindus call it
The Paramatma symbolised by the sound OM. It is beyond form and which manifests itself in different shapes and sounds .The Hindu deity symbolizing this Paramatma is Lord Brahma the creator of this Universe. The Aztecs call it Omteotl and the Mayas call it Aho.

To the Hindus, Brahma, is the infinite, the source of all space, time, causation, names and forms. Theologically, he is the single letter
(eka-aksharam) Om and the uncreated creator (svayambhu), the self-born first person. Philosophically, he is the first manifestation of one’s existence (ahankara). Cosmologically, he is hiranyagarbha (golden embryo), the ball of fire, from which the universe develops. The Kathopanishad gives us the concept of the universe as a Tree which has its roots upwards into the sky, branches downwards in the world. The roots are the pure Brahma. The Brahma is the creator and everything in the universe owes its existence to him. The five elements are set into action by Brahma. A pure mind is like a mirror where the Brahma is reflected clearly. Brahma’s icon has four heads (chaturmukha brahma) facing the four quarter. They represent the four Vedas (Rig, Yajur, Sama, Atharva), the four yugas (krita, treta, dwapara, kali) (epochs of time), the four varnas (brahmana, kshatriya, vaisya, sudra). The faces have beards with eyes closed in meditation.

The Maya Concept of Creation:

Popol Vuh, the sacred book of the Mayas says:
“All moons, all years, all days, all winds, Reach their completion and pass away, Measured is the time in which we can praise the splendor of the Trinity. Measured is the time in which We can know the benevolence of the Sun. Measured is the time in which the grid of the Stars looks down upon us. And through it, keeping watch over their safety, The Spirits, abiding within the Stars measures their fate.”
(from the Popol Vuh, or The Book of Council-Ancient Maya scripture)
“This we shall write now within the law of God and Christianity; we shall bring it to light because now the Popol Vuh as it is called cannot
be seen any more, in which was clearly seen the coming from the other side of the sea, and the narration of our obscurity,
and our life was clearly seen. The original book, written long ago existed, but its sight is hidden from the searcher and the thinker.” (From the first page of the Popol Vuh)
The concept of Creation in the Hindu and Maya books is thus similar. In both there is also a reference to the Great Flood.

Gods of Nature:

Like the Hindus, the Mayas worship the gods of nature every day. Worshiping their gods was and is a huge part of their daily life. Some of their gods include the God of Rain, Lady Rainbow, the God of Maize (corn), and of course, the God of Sun. Without the help of these important gods, there would be no crops and everyone would starve.

The Underworld:

Maya religion was far more complicated than the simple worship of gods of nature. The Maya world was composed of 3 layers – the Heavens, the Earth, and the Underworld, sometimes called the Otherworld or the Place of Awe. The Mayas conducted many ceremonies to keep the demons, creatures and gods in the Underworld.

Ceremonies:

The ceremonies are in fact the practice of the religiosity and the spirituality of the Mayas as well as the Hindus. Through this ceremony a
man seeks to establish contact with the Supreme Being, the creator of the Sky and the earth. In both the Maya and the Hindu cultures, a religious ceremony is a sacred ritual performed as a celebration of important dates under the guidance of the priests and in consultation with the sacred Alamanacs. The ceremonies are performed for the concrete
objectives, offerings are made for the benefit of all and general wellbeing, health, and for gaining wisdom and positive energy during difficult times of the human existence. These religious activities are performed in ceremonial centers like the Hindu temples or Maya Altars which are built like places of sacred activities for the entire community and which as per both Hindu and Maya provision can also be used for household ceremonies. The Hindu and the Mayan ceremonies constitute at the fundamental element of their cultural identity.

The Concept of the Four Yugas

The Mayas believe that the world had been created five times and destroyed four times; this eschatology became the fundamental basis of Mesoamerican religion from 900 AD onwards when it was adopted by the Toltecs. This is similar to the Concept of the Four Yugas as expounded in the Hindu scriptures.

Belief in Rebirth: Like the Hindus the Mayas too believed in an afterlife. Commoners buried their dead inside their homes, under the floor. That way, they could live with their ancestors and keep their ancestors easily posted on their daily life. The Mayas believed they would be compensated. If they had a rough time or a rough life, this would be made up to them in their afterlife. Nobles were buried in tombs.

The Spirituality of the Maya strikes the chord of familiarity in a Hindu mind. There are many similarities between the Hindus and the Mayas
in their physical features, in the social organization, food habits, in
customs and so on.. These similarities and the similarities in the religious rituals were revealed during the Hindu Maya Conference in May 2005 in the city of Antigua Guatemala organized by International Center For Cultural Studies(ICCS).

Maoris of New Zealand

It was in 1865 that Tregear brought out the similarities between the Indian and Maori culture. He also traced the roots of the Maoris to Iria-India. Scholars of Language studies have noted and recorded the similarities in Sanskrit and Maori language.

Anthropologists are still seeking answers, to the question of the origin of the Maoris. It seems, studying their oral traditions that they
came from Uru. According to James Siers from Uru followed a migration to Irihia. Irihia in ancient Sanskrit was Vrina…. India and the word ari, which Maoris records show as a very important food of India – the Dravidian word for rice” Accepting or assuming that the Maori came to New Zealand through India traveling towards the rising sun, they stayed in Sumatra for an indefinite period of time, moving towards Borneo, and on to the islands which they named as Ahu, Maui and Hawaiki; it is strange that these names still exist as the Ahu, Maui and Hawaii of the Hawaiin group. Far from the land of their origin they still maintained a
mental and spiritual ink with the land of their origin through the customs traditions, festivals, rituals religious beliefs and above all their spirituality. Here are some examples:

 Both the Vedic Hindu culture and Maori culture attach great importance to the institution of marriage and hence adultery involving a
married woman is considered a great offence. Marriage is considered essential to give legitimacy to children. The most striking similarity in the marriage customs is the practice of polygamy. More wives mean more working hands, more children born and more wealth to show off.
 The moon is a measure of time & its personified form is the God of Agriculture for Maori as well as for Indians.
 Maori occasionally employed a thirteenth month in order to regulate the year and so covered the lost time. This is quite similar to the Indian way.

As among the Hindus,The TAPU The period of childbirth is ‘Tapu’ for outsiders and contact with the child and mother is done only by specified attendants. It is a system, which
ensures that a certain amount of cleanliness and untouchability is maintained to avoid contamination of food, and protection against infection for the new mother. The place of family worship and Deities are also ‘Tapu’, The little Idols of worship of the family are not playthings, hence it is assured that they do not leave the place where they are installed. In India the system of segregating the tapu is practiced to this day in temples where no one is allowed to go into the Sanctum Sanctorum

Rituals

Marriages, deaths and births were conducted with absolute ritual as in India’s ‘SHASHTROKTA’ way. In religious education, learning by rote was practiced as in India. The Priestly class chanted the Mantras. But as the mantras were passed down from one to another often got lost when the younger generation went the modern way; a lot of these rituals and knowledge were lost to civilization.
 According to Maoris, the soul leaves the body after death and this released soul gradually moves from gross elements of the body and this process leaves a refined, unattached and immortal essence of soul that passes on further. This is the etherized form of soul after it leaves gross elements of the body gradually. Maoris have the custom of performing certain rites to dispatch the soul of the dead person to the spirit world. It is called ‘Wehe” which is the process of detaching or separating the soul from the body through the charm recited over the corpse before the burial in order to dispatch the soul of the dead person to spirit world to prevent it remaining on earth and frighten the
living persons. After the burial of the body, in the evening, the mourning relatives cut their hair short leaving a long lock on the left side of the head. It is a belief that soul will not depart to spirit-land until this ceremony is performed. The word used for final departing stage of the soul as ‘awe’ in Maori, which means extreme lightness.
 Indians also believe that the soul remains in the material world for ten days and departs to its ethereal state by thirteenth day after certain rites/rituals are performed on the dead body. This ritual is called “Shradha” ceremony after the dead body is burned on pyre which is
performed by the eldest son of the deceased or any son of the dead.

Polytheism.

“Traditional Maori religion can be seen as a means whereby the people
perceived and came to terms with the varied environment of seacoast, forest, swamp, tussock flat and mountain that they encountered in New Zealand. They believed in a pantheon of numerous gods, which some scholars have divided into four groups. It is still sometimes claimed that at the head was a Supreme Being, ‘Io’ but the evidence is not very convincing. On the other hand there were a number of less esoteric gods,
the children of Rangi (sky) and Papa (earth) the original parents. These were the gods of the forests, peace and agriculture, war, the
ocean, wind and storm, uncultivated food, earthquakes, and also the god of evil. Through myth they provided the ultimate sanctions for human behaviour and attitudes. There were also lesser gods known only in a limited area, and usually restricted to one tribe, such as Maru a wargod. Finally there were tribal ancestral spirits, who were believed to have a great influence over the affairs of their living descendants. (Man, Myth and Magic: Pp 1730,2771,1713,1730.. Marshal Cavendish, N.Y., London, Toronto)
Maoris believe that everything possesses a sacred side of the mana called Mauri such as the sky, moon, sun, rain, wind, trees, night, day and all other things. The Hindus call it Paramatma. According to native Maoris the material Mauri is an abiding place of god i.e. God is present
in all the objects. They are the personified forms of natural objects. It means there will be God of trees, mountains, rivers etc. The concept of Mauri can be summed as a mental outlook of Maori towards the physical
life principle for the welfare of man by reposing faith in the sacred and the gods and their power represented in some material object. In order to keep up the power of the object for the welfare of man, Maori lay emphasis on preserving the sanctity of the object and not allowing it to be defiled.
Essence of Maori Philosophy
Based on the above basic conceptual framework of Maori philosophy and subtle meanings of these concepts, the essence of Maori philosophy can be stated as the belief that the Maori is the descendent of supernatural
beings and owes supernormal life to the Divinity. His soul originally comes from the supernatural being. This belief further led to the conviction that this spark of Divine is very sacred and represents true vitality of man, his physical, mental, moral and spiritual welfare. Maoris have not only endowed man with these principles but to animals and inanimate objects were also assigned those principles.
The essence of the philosophy as mentioned above shows the highest level of cultural refinement of the Maoris.
Pre. Christian cultures all over the world have tremendous similarities amongst their faiths, beliefs, traditions and their worship for Nature –
The mother earth, the water, the fire, the sky and the wind. Their lives were the continuous worship for everything existing around them. From the very blade of grass to the peak of the mountain, everything was
the object of their adoration, love and regard. The nature was a big awe for them. Their feelings for nature were mixed with two diametrically opposed views. On the one hand the emotions were loaded with fear and threat from nature and at the same time Nature was a big blessing for them. Their very existence was dependent upon nature. Maories in New Zealand actually present an environmental philosophy in which it is possible to live a rich and rewarding life without plundering the planet. A Maori world view shows that we can care for the
land rather than harm it and still live a good life. It presents an image of mutual harmony and understanding in which all creatures are inter-related.
Exactly the same view is adopted on Indian soil by our ancient Rishis, Munies and seers. The term ‘Darshan’ has a special significance in Indian context. ‘Darshan’ is not a mere perception. It has got a deep connotation of actual insight into the things. The seers have actually ‘seen’ the ultimate reality of this universe. They developed a very
sophisticated philosophy about the ‘Jiva’ (the living individual), the ‘Jagat’ (the world in which they live) and the ‘Jagadishwara’ (the God).
The God is supposed to be the ultimate foundation for the very existence of this world and for the existence of the creatures, the animals, the birds, the insects and along with these all the inanimate, static, material, physical world.
According to maori-tribal belief ‘Tangata Whenua’ is the central theme, meaning thereby the personal relationship between the mother-earth and papa-taunuku. ‘Taunuku’ is the ancestor of the maories. This image is strengthened by the fact that ‘Whenua’ refers also to plancenta and the land both. This implies the personal relationship between humans and the
earth. This peculiar relationship features in the philosophies of many cultures of the world and finds a powerful distinctive expression in maori thought.
From Indian point of view God is supposed to be the father of everything, he creates everything animate and in-animate in this world. He is the creator, protector, maintainer and also responsible for the annihilation and destruction of this world. In maori tribe the concept papa Ancestor takes the place of God. The mother earth is the mother of all human beings in true sense of the word. As the mother earth cares for her children, the children in turn should also care for her. Here we
find a typical modern concept of protecting the environment around us. The earth produces food for her children, grass for animals. If we take the proper care of the land, she will be in good condition and will produce abundantly for her children. The mother-earth being the ancestor
of all creatures implies that all the other human beings and creatures are the cousines amongst themselves.
The basic maori beliefs and faiths are reflected in many maori narratives. These narratives are still significant and meaningful in many maori traditions. In maori society, traditions are not just things of the past gone and dead. They are still living in the ideas, actions and lives of the human beings.One of the prime maori belief is The Mother Earth and papa-sky are in each other’s fold and the inevitable outcome of this loving embrace is the down-fall of the rain on the soil.
This is supposed to be the process of liberating their children from the close embrace of their parents and allow them to flourish and they in turn flourish the whole environment.
The Indian view goes exactly on the same line. The Lord Brahman and its inseparable vital energy (maya) are responsible for creating the various
objects. The five vital elements-namely-earth, water, fire, wind and the sky (They are called ‘gross elements’ in technical expression). They
take care of maintaining the nature of everything that is existent on this earth. Similar to the typical maori concept of mother earth and papa-sky, the parallel concept of purusha ‘Prakrih’ can be seen in ‘Samkhya Darsan’ of Indian philosophy. The Intellect, the ego, the manas
and the five cognitive element, the five motor elements are supposed to
be necessary for the production of human beings and the ‘Shabda’, the ‘Sparsh’, ‘Rupa’, the ‘Rasa’ and the ‘Gandha’ is inevitably connected with ‘Akash’ (the sky), the ‘Vayu’ (the wind) the ‘Agni’ (The Teja) the ‘Rasa’ (the water) an the ‘Gandha’ (the earth) accordingly. The technical name ‘Sarga’ is given to this whole process of creation in Samkhya philosophy.
 The traditional moral values and the religious philosophy of a particular community are handed down from generation to generation by word of mouth and the folklore and it forms the bedrock of faith in the gods and goddesses worshipped by a particular community. Implicit faith in the existence of the Supreme Reality led all indigenous cultures to create their own pantheon, which was intricately woven into respective mythology. The Maoris, like all other indigenous communities, saw divinity reflected in every aspect of nature and symbolically worshipped
its tangible form –idols of gods and goddesses.
 The Maori Dharma is closely related to nature and to the ancestors. Nature itself is considered a living being and thus the interaction between man and nature is bound by prescripts and rituals. The Maoris, like other indigenous cultures, linked nature with creation. The creation myth has one male and a female- our primal parents. Usually the
Sky is the father and the Earth is the mother. It is similar to the Indian concept of Prakriti and Purusha in unison, who have given birth to this world and all that goes with it. Among the Maoris it is Rangi and Papa. Rangi is the father of eight major gods. He represents the sky
and according to Maori mythology, is the founding father of mankind. Ancient Maori legend recounts how Te Ao Maori (The Maori World) came into being.
The Maori myth of creation comes very close to the story of creation in Indian mythology where the story is told of Lord Brahma creating a woman
and falling in love with her thus producing children.
The Maori view of creation in which all nature was seen as a great kinship tracing its origins back to a single pair, the Sky Father and the Earth Mother, was a conception which they brought with them when they came from Central Polynesia about 1,000 A.D. Furthermore this belief in a primal pair, as well as the metaphysical idea of an original
Void or Darkness, seems to be part of the idea which the ancestors of the Polynesians brought with them from the west, from the Asian mainland. In both the Indian and the Maori mythology, Creation of the universe is attributed to the force and spirit of nature. The implication is that the universe was not created in an instant, but that
it is a slow process of evolution allowing Nature to take different forms and shapes.
 In NewZealand the Maori kept record of the way of life prescribed by the ancestors, who worshipped and obeyed gods. The Maori believed in deities and personifications of nature, including Tane-mahuta, lord of the forest, Tawhirimatea, Rongo-ma-tane, Uenuku and Tangaroa, a Polynesian ocean god. Tribal high priests and the chief also believed in
and understood the existence of the supreme God, Io, whose existence was not generally revealed to the community.
 Maori may have started as hunters and fishermen as is generally believed but over time they evolved a culture sustained by agriculture and hunting. They had a complex social structure of tribes, sub-tribes and clans, and a stratified society made up of nobility, priestly and slave classes. This comes close to the Indian system of Chaturvarnya Vyawastha , a stratified social system divided in four classes each
assigned a definite social obligation . They were the brahmanas i.e. priests who were responsible for correct interpretation of the scriptures, performed religious rites, and were teachers. the kshatriyas
whose duty was to fight and protect the motherland, the vaishyas who engaged themselves in agriculture, and the Shudras who performed the menial tasks. Both among the Maoris and the Indians the priests had great importance as they were assigned duties of intellectual nature. The Maori Ariki can be compared to the Indian Brahmana.
 The work of memorizing record of Maori ancestry called Whakapapa was entrusted to the best retentive minds of each whanau who, like the Indian Brahman, were encouraged to develop abilities from their childhood and from their numbers keenest minds capable of maintaining word perfect dialogues were chosen to preserve the sacred traditional records they received. (Fowler-A Consideration of New Zealand Race Relations). This systems is similar to the Indian social systems of entrusting valuable records to the priestly class- the Brahmanas who preserved the Vedas, the Upanishadas and the Puranas and handed them down from generation to generation orally. The priestly families were divided according to the work entrusted to them. It is because of these brahmanas that we have most of the ancient records still with us. The onslaught of Islam and the advent of Christianity could not destroy these valuable records. Elsewhere as in Mexico the libraries were burnt and records were destroyed.
 In Maori NewZealand the traditional History was confined to Ariki and tohunga keeping and it was largely their domain of responsibility to administer it. Throughout Polynesia as Fowler observes, Ariki have generally been firstborn of the firstborn, who, it is believed by them, descended originally from celestial deities. They were the rishis who the Indians considered to be the offspring of the celestial deities or heavenly bodies. Maoris of old, like their cousins throughout the pacific, believed in the concept of heaven consisting of twelve houses occupied by the Kahui-o-te-rangi, the heavenly host served by Apas their
celestial messengers. These gods were responsible for order within human society by requiring strict observance of community rules and precepts of living the laws of the tapu which were ingrained from birth into the minds of all, that nobody dared to break. The notion tapu (sacred), from which the word tabu is deduced, is still a central notion
in contemporary Maori society. This is exactly what Dharma implies, a strict adherence to the code of conduct as envisaged by the ancient Indians thinkers-Munis. This Dharma was laid down by the sages-the Akiri.
 “The Lore of the Whare Wananga” which was the Maori’s first attempt to
write down and preserve their beliefs. Although this was not translated
and published until this century, it was formulated during the 1860’s from the teachings of two Maori priests Te Matorohanga and Nepia Pohuhu.
Not only was it written down by Maori “scribes”, but the finer doctrinal points were thrashed out by a committee by Maori priests and elders. The lore explicitly stated that “.the priests alone had
complete knowledge of Io and that ordinary people knew nothing”. In India too, priests-the Brahmans were entrusted with the task of preserving knowledge. The Brahman was one who had the knowledge of the ultimate reality-the Brahman
 As regards the Deities worshipped by these ancient people, The Creator, like the Indian Brahma is Io-nui. In Aotearoa his name was Tangaroa. His seventy children included Tane, Rongo, Tu, whiti and Hina.
Tregear has brought out the similarities between the Maori and Indian Mythology, especially the story of creation, the serpent worship, the Fish Incarnation of Lord Vishnu called the Matsya-Avatara and so on. Even more notable are the philological connection between Sanskrit and Maori language. The roots of the Maoris have been traced to India. Almost every religious and social belief as is pointed out in different studies are reminiscent of the Indian roots of the Maoris. For instance both believe that a person lives in harmony with the natural physical and spiritual world, and that this delicate balance is maintained through systems of customary practices and in case of the Maori –the laws of the Tapu. The Indians and the Maoris alike believed that the transgression of the laws of the Tapu-spiritual piety –incurred the wrath of gods and the punishment is disease and illness. All Maori believed in ‘atua’ (Indian Atma), or spirits.
 The coming of Christianity replaced these earlier beliefs and destroyed the power of Tapu. Life in Aotearoa before the European occupation was steeped in native religion. As in India, no part of normal daily life was proceeded without dedication to Gods and tohungas (Tohunga is the Maori priest or a gifted and very knowledgeable person. –like the Brahmans in India-) officiating. From birth to death they controlled all the ceremonies-as the Indian priests do even today. No rite can be performed without them.
 Unlike Islam and Christianity, Indigenous Dharma did not have a political agenda. Islam set about conquering the world and had obvious contempt of idolatry and considered ritualistic religion as impure. Christianity took upon itself the task of saving the souls of the idolaters from going to hell. The sword was used preach the gospel. The result is that today indigenous Dharma is only in reminiscent state in all the colonised nations. The population is mostly Europeanized and modernized. Old ritualistic religion has been replaced by the Church.
 Yet Despite the western influences a good part of the Maori religion remained intact. Many rituals are still carried out and are often associated with traditional visual arts and traditional music. The Maraee and the Tangihanga ceremony are the two Maori institutions have survived the impact of western civilization. Maoridom has compromised with the changing times and political influences, but the desire to control their own lives and the will to determine their own future has made them assertive in order to preserve and protect their own Dharma.

Druids –The Ancient Celts

Amiarigen, the first Druid sang:
I am the god who creates in the head of man the fire of thought
Who is it that enlightens the assembly upon the mountain, if not I? who tells ages of the moon if not I?

Who shows the place where the sun goes to rest, if not I?
Who is the God that fashions enchantments?
The enchantment of battle and the wind of change?
This seems to be coming straight from The Bhagwadgita
Scholars have found out that the Druids and the Vedic Brahmins are the two branches of the Vedic culture of 5000 years before. Peter Berresford
Ellis, one of Europe’s foremost experts of the Celts, t(he living authorities on the Celts and author of many books on the subject, including “Celt and Roman,” “Celt and Greek,” “Dictionary of Celtic Mythology” and “Celtic Women.”) has brought out the amazing similarity between the two. Both emerged from the common Indo-European cultural root which began to branch out probably five thousand years ago. According to Ellis the Celts spread from their homeland in what is now Germany across Europe in the first millennium bce. Iron tools and weapons rendered them superior to their neighbors. They were also skilled farmers, road builders, traders and inventors of a fast two-wheeled chariot. Due to the ethnic cleansing of the Romans the Celtic civilization declined. Today it is represented only by the modern
Irish, Manx and Scots, and the Welsh, Cornish and Bretons.

The Druids were the Celtic priestly class. The scholars of the Greek Alexandrian school clearly described them as a parallel caste to the brahmins of Vedic society. The name Druid is composed of two Celtic word
roots which have parallels in Sanskrit. Indeed, the root vid for knowledge, which also emerges in the Sanskrit word Veda, demonstrates the similarity. The Celtic root dru which means “immersion” also appears
in Sanskrit. So a Druid was one “immersed in knowledge. According to the famous linguist Prof Professor Calvert Watkins (Harvard), ‘The structure of Old Irish can be compared only with that of Vedic Sanskrit or Hittite of the Old Kingdom.’ The vocabulary is amazingly similar.
The following are the examples of the similarity between these two languages:
 Old Irish – aire (freeman),Sanskrit – arya (noble)
 Old Irish – naib (good), Sanskrit – noeib (holy)
 Old Irish – bodhar (deaf), Sanskrit – badhira (deaf)
 Old Irish – names (respect), Sanskrit – nemed (respect)
 Old Irish – righ (king), Sanskrit – raja (king)
The same is the case with law and social custom, in mythology, in folk custom and in traditional musical form. The ancient Irish law system, the Laws of the Fénechus, is closely parallel to the Laws of Manu. Many surviving Irish myths, and some Welsh ones, show remarkable resemblances
to the themes, stories and even names in the sagas of the Indian Vedas.
Among the ancient Celts, Danu was regarded as the “Mother Goddess.” The waters of the river Danuvius is today called the Danube. Many European rivers bear the name of Danu–the Rhône (ro- Dhanu, “Great Danu”) and several rivers called Don. Rivers were sacred in the Celtic world, and places where votive offerings were deposited and burials often conducted. The Thames, which flows through London, still bears its Celtic name, from Tamesis, the dark river, which is the same name as Tamasa, a tributary of the Ganges. Not only is the story of Danu and the
Danube a parallel to that of Ganga and the Ganges but a Hindu Danu appears in the Vedic story “The Churning of the Oceans,” a story with parallels in Irish and Welsh mytholgy. Danu in Sanskrit also means “divine waters” and “moisture.”
Celtic cosmology is a parallel to Vedic cosmology. Ancient Celtic astrologers used a similar system based on twenty-seven lunar mansions, called nakshatras in Vedic Sanskrit. Like the Hindu Soma, King Ailill of
Connacht, Ireland, had a circular palace constructed with twenty-seven windows through which he could gaze on his twenty-seven “star wives.”
There survives the famous first century bce Celtic calendar (the Coligny
Calendar) which, as soon as it was first discovered in 1897, was seen to have parallels to Vedic calendrical computations. In the most recent study of it, Dr. Garret Olmsted, an astronomer as well as Celtic scholar, points out the startling fact that while the surviving calendar
was manufactured in the first century bce, astronomical calculus shows that it must have been computed in 1100 BCE.
One fascinating parallel is that the ancient Irish and Hindus used the name Budh for the planet Mercury. The stem budh appears in all the Celtic languages, as it does in Sanskrit, as meaning “all victorious,” “gift of teaching,” “accomplished,” “enlightened,” “exalted” and so on. The names of the famous Celtic queen Boudicca, of ancient Britain (1st century ce), and of Jim Bowie (1796-1836), of the Texas Alamo fame, contain the same root. Buddha is the past participle of the same Sanskrit word–“one who is enlightened.”
Ref: (Meet the Brahmins of ancient Europe, the high caste of Celtic society By Peter Berresford Ellis
http://www.hinduvoice.net/cgi-bin/maillist/mojo.cgi?flavor=archive&id=20030115010923&list=HV)
The Druids have organized themselves. They assert their separate identity.they participate in the International conferences of World Council of elders of Ancient Traditions and Culture , a forum of International Center For cultural Studies (ICCS)
In the Jaipur conference in 2006, Philip Car Gomm of Ireland, Jakez Connan, Alain Escabasse, Catherine Dréau from France represented the Druid ethnicity which claims similarity with the Hindu ways of life and thought. They said in unison

“We are Druids, Druids of Brittany.
We are from the land in front of the sea.
From Mother Earth our bodies were born, and from the fire father on the hills our souls were breathed into us
From the Ether, the Spirit is around us and within us.
Through the Water of Life we swim in the existence of the Worlds.
By the Harp of the Air we play our music, we have brought with us a part of the wisdom of our world.
We were brought here by the North West Winds, the Winds from the Isles to the North of the world.
We are Druids, Druids of Brittany”.

The Druids claim ancient ties with India. They quote the works of Bal Gangadhar Tilak in support of their argument.
According to these Druids, since 2200 BCE, successive waves of Celtic peoples (Aryani ethnicity) were reported in numerous ancient texts and in a large number of traditional tales similar to those of Vedic India. In the ‘ancient celtic’ language, the word aryan is well attested – arios – who means ‘free man’, this term is seen as aire in Gaelic and Irish languages. Numerous tribes arriving from Central Europe, and perhaps further to the East, finished by settling little by little in Western Europe. There already existed in those lands, however, a much older tradition – that of the ancient megaliths – This megalith tradition appears to be universal, as important traces are found in Asia, India, North Africa and America.
Interestingly, the greater part of the symbols used by the Celts already
existed in these lands three thousand years BCE. Druidism is monist, which means that the world is not shared between good and evil, but that
all is both good and worth: only Truth does matter.
There is no proselytizing: admission to Druidism is by co-optation. All future members are initiated. There is a great tolerance within Druidism, and an absence of monolithic way: the belief in one or several
divinities is neither a central point nor an obligation for us. Yet, in
our liturgies numerous invocations are made to our Celtic gods.
For the Celt, the divine act is not central and is thus not subject to the obsession with submission that one may observe in the monotheist religions : a Druid may be a pantheist, a henotheist, a polytheist and even atheist, or, eventually, monotheist.
Who are the divinities? The Celt may believe – or not – in the Gods, but
nonetheless these constitute a basis for meditation. The Gods are entities used to represent the directing forces of each aspect of the visible and invisible worlds, and from which it would appear all is issued. A divinity is thought of as a causal and transcendent energy which manifests itself in a particular variable of the perceptible universe.
Unlike the monotheistic Muslim and Christian faiths and very much like the Hindus, the Druids accept the world as it is and do not try to change or to modify its natural order. The Gods, who can thus be the mental representations of certain states of being, of certain virtues too, as well as the incarnation of the natural forces in a concrete object. The forces of Nature are numerous, so the Gods are numerous too.
According to them their deity is the actual incarnation of Shiva.Shiva et Dionysos – Alain Daniélou – 1979 (reprint 1999), p. 152: in India, Kali appears covered with snakes. Shiva himself also appears with snakes
coiled around his neck and his arms. The primordial energy, the Shakti,
is the power created by Shiva, the principle unfolding from the demonstration. As with the origins of the time cycles, this is depicted as a snake. As the Universe expands, so does the snake, and as the Universe contracts, so too does the snake, thereby becoming the bed for a
sleeping Vishnou (representing the forces of cohesion).
The Dedma (The Eternal Law) or the ‘Path of Life’ is the Celtic equivalent of the Dharma in India.ii

Rituals:

The ceremonies are held in Nature, and not in a built temple. They are based on the annual cycles of the sun and the moon, corresponding thereby to the seasons and thus to pastoral and agricultural activity.
Importance of Nature
Druidic philosophy is based in Nature, and is therefore particularly concerned with the role of man as a link between the Earth and the Sky, as a guardian of the Equilibrium. Druids work hard for Opposing outrage to Mother Earth
Almost all the old Catholic churches were built over the ancient sacred Druidic sites. Sometimes the remains which we hold to be sacred are still present within the foundations of these monuments. From this situation the Druids wish to re-dedicate old sacred Celtic sites which have been christianised, and even, sometimes, abandoned by the Catholic Church. According the to the Druid Activists ,the Breton Pardons are Christian religious festivals which are in reality of pagan origin, consisting of a procession and a ceremony around a spring or an ancient stone. In previous days, these were followed by a fair and by local games. They claim that, the Breton ‘Pardons’ bear a strong resemblance to the ‘Melas’ in India.
The Druids wish, also, to recuperate the sacred rites by participating in the Troménies (the procession around the sacred enclosure). These were ancient pagan
processions taken over by the church. They take place at the same frequency as the Kumba Mela in India.
Defence of Druid culture and language:
Now the Druids are in a survival mode, at the opposing end of diverse discouragements and interferences from the dominant culture (in this case, French) which is leading their culture towards annihilation through eroding our Breton language.
This too may be said of the other Celtic languages: Welsh, Gaelic, Manx and Cornish.
Before, the Roman invasion of the 1st century BC, followed by the arrival of a religion from ‘outside’ – Christianity, from the 4th century, managed to destroy the foundations of our religion, taught orally by the druids.
The Druidic Assembly is working for the following objectives
Priority is given to the thorough study of the spiritual sources via the
origins of the Druid languages, of ancient literature, of symbolism and
of comparative religions, etc.

The Swedish Asatru

Asatru is one branch of the Teutonic family of beliefs, which includes the pre-Christian faiths not only of the Scandinavian peoples, but also the Anglo-Saxons who founded England, and the ancient German tribes such as the Goths, Franks, and Alemanni. Before they were converted to the Roman Church between the years 450 and 1100, all of these nations worshipped the same two families of Gods and Goddesses, known to the Norse as the Æsir and Vanir. Koenraad Logghe speaking of the Asatrú – The Low Countries / Europe says.
“Since the old Norse religion was reinstituted in the Low Countries, it has taken some time to reintroduce traditional spirituality. This had no
chance to succeed if we hadn’t been conscious of the close relationship
between the Norse, Celtic, Baltic, Ossetian, Roman, Greek, Parse and Indian traditions. Only by comparing the spiritual ruins of our culture with the more complete Indo-European religions, such as Hinduism and the
Greek tradition, we were able to return to the true essence of our customs and doctrines. Especially the Mahâbhârata, the Rg-Veda, the Upanishads and the works of Emperor Julian, Porphyrius, Jamblichos and even Plotinos have opened for us a brand new world of metaphysical explanations combined with physical impressions. The parallels were striking! We were able to restore the importance of Orlögr or – as it is
called in India – Dharma; we were able to reconsider the notion of love
of Fate –amor fati -that aspect of the old tradition that leads
heroes towards their tragical but heroic death as a mors triumphalis, a level that transcends death, that overcomes death, a glorious victory over death, and a participation in the universal battle that transcends every local egoism.”1
Asatru is a way of a religious life based in the old pre Christian spiritual traditions in Northern Europe or Scandinavia that are often called Asatru. Forn Sed or sometimes it is just referred to as Sed. The designation Sed can be translated as “custom”. Sed refers to the old spiritual customs, traditions and pracitices that our ancestors lived by
for thousands of years before Christianity came. Even after Christianity became dominant, the old traditions and beliefs continued to live under the surface in folk traditions and folklore up untill the present day. We have many traces of the old religion left in Sweden; in place-names, old burials areas and other ceremonial grounds, in popular public holidays that celebrate the turning of the seasons, or in feasts such as Jultid (also called Yuletide in English or Christmas as most may
know it), when we give offerings to local spirits or to specific gods. The days of the week also hold memories of our faith; every day gets its
name from the old Gods. Wednesday or Onsdag comes from the God Odin. Thursday or Torsdag is from the God Tor, Friday from the Goddess Frigga,
and so on. The fact that these names of the week were incorporated in Britain and in the English language has led to the situation that the old Scandinavian Gods are called by their names every day, all over the world, also in India.
The Swedish Asatru Assembly has only existed for eleven years, and so there is much they have to learn and much to develop. In many cases the traditions of spiritual heritage are broken and they are forced to fill in the empty spaces themselves.( 1 In the ‘ancient celtic’ language, the
word aryan is well attested – arios – who means ‘free man’, this term gave aire in Gaelic and Irish languages2.
One thing, however is certain: They have ties with the Vedic culture as revealed in their prayer:

Prayer of Asatru

Hell er Asar
Hell er Asynjor
Hell dig du givmilda Jord
Hell dig Sunna, du värmande sol
Hell dig Måne, du ljus i natten
Må vi utöva Seden
till glädje och gagn

1 Sanskriti Sangam-II Proceedings of International Conference & Gathering of Elders,Jaipur Feb 5 2006.Pub: International Center for Cultural Studies USA
2 See the article by Alain le Goff

för alla Gudar
för markens bördighet
och bygdernas väl
Må vi utöva Seden
till glädje och gagn
för alla jordens barn
för livets släktband
och Yggdrasils växt
Må vi vandra
i vördnad och värdighet
Må vi vandra må vi vandra i Sed och Alver nära
på denna heliga Jord på detta heliga land som ligger Asar i mod och givmildhet

Prayer of Asatru
Translation to English:
Hail to thee, Asar (Gods)
Hail to thee, Asynjor (Goddesses)
Hail to thee, abundant Earth
Hail to thee Sunna, warming sun
Hail to thee Måne, moon that shines in the night
May we practise the old ways
to the joy and service
of all the Gods
for the fertility of the land
and the well-being of the communities
May we practise the old ways
to the joy and service
of all the children of the Earth
for the interconnectedness of all Beings
and the growth of Yggdrasil, the Tree of life.
May we all walk
in reverence and dignity
May we all walk
in courage and generosity
May we all
walk in a good way
on this sacred Earth
on this sacred land
near the Gods
near the Spirits

References

Indi Aztec Cultural Affinity ISBN No.81-874 20-03-0, Pub: International Center for cultural Studies 1998

 Bancraft: history of Mexico, A. L. Bancraft & Co. Sans Francisco 1833. * Barnes F. A. & Pendleton Michadene, Pre Historic Indians. * Brandon William (ed) The Magic World : William Morrow & Co. New York 1971. * Bierhorst John (ed) In the Trail of the Wind : Farrar Strauss & Giroux, New York 1971. * Bierhorst John (ed) four Master works of America,,. Indian Literature, Farrar Strauss & Giroux, New York 197 1. * Brotherson Gordon: Book of the Fourth World, Cambridge University Press 1992. * Chamanlal: Hindu America, New Book Co. Bombay 1940. * Cortes Hernando : Five Letters : Trans Bayard Morris George Routledge & Sons 1928. * Disseihoff Hans Dietrich : Ancient American, Sigvald Linne, Methuen London 1961. * Dowd George Evans : A spirited Resistance, John Hopkins, University Press Baltimore and London
1992. * Farb Peter : The Cultural Ascent of the Indians of North America, E. P. Dutton New York 1968. * Gibson Charles: The Aztec Under Spanish Rule : A History of the Indians of the Valley of Mexico (15 19-1.810) Stanford University Press California 1964. * Greenblatt Stephen (ed) New World Encoun/ers, T.Tniversity of Cn1firni:i Pnt: L I ‘.193
Hanke Lewis : The fir Social Experiment in America A Study of the Development of Spanish Indian Policy the 1.6th Century : Gloucesternass Peter Smith 1964. * Hultkrantz Ake : The Religion of the American Indians Trans Monica Setterwell, Univerthty of California Press 1979. * Hewett Edgar : Ancient Life in Mexico and Central America : Biblo Tanneh
Newyork 1964. * Prescott William : The History of the Conquest of Mexico, Crossup & Sterling Newyork 1898. * Prescott William : History of the Conquest of Mexico with a Preliminary View of the Life of
the Conqueror Hernando Cones, London Routledge 1857. * Rothenberg Jerome (ed), Shaking the Pumpkin, Doubleday & Co. Garden City New York.

  • Shahagun Barnandino de : Florentine Codex : General History of the Thing of New Spain Santa Fe, New Mexico, The School of American Research
    and the University of Utah 1962 Trans – J. 0. Anderson. * Und.erhill Ruth : Red Man‘s Religion ,University of Chicago Press, Chicago & London 1965. * Vailant George C : The Aztec of Mexico, Penguin Books 1944. * Von Hogan Victor : The Aztec:Man and the Tribe New American Library 1958. * Waters Frank : The Mexico Mystique, Swallow Press Inc. Chicago 1975. * Weatherford Jack : Indian Givers, Fawcett Columbine, Newyork 1988.
  • Wright Ronald : Stolen Continents : Houghton Mifflin Co. Boston, Network London. 1992
    *Indo Aztec Dharma, ISBN No:81-87420-15-4 Pub: International Center for cultural Studies2002
    *Maya Hindu Hermanos ISBN No:81-87420-9 Pub: International Center for cultural Studies2006
    *H.C. Raichaudhary – Political History of ancient India’ *R.C. Mujumdar – Hindu Colonies in the Far East’
    *Nilkantha Shastri – A History of South India.
    *National Geographic – Vol. 173 No. 2 Feb. 1988
    People of the Land and Pacific philosophy
    *History of Tearawan
    ICCS WCEATC Journal Sanskriti Sangam Vol II, Pub: International Center for cultural Studies

Sidhartha,

The article that you sent a while back, at the very top, speaks of migration from India to South America.

And I wish to highlight an article from the links which tells how Hanuman traveled from India to South America by tunnel:

https://www.booksfact.com/puranas/hanuman-travelled-patala-loka-south-america-tunnel.html

I think that all the China trouble that is occurring in the world has its origin in Tibet. On Page 229 of The Hollow Earth, Ossendowski writes: "The Lama Gelong gave me a description of the subterranean world."

...

"All the subterranean passages in the entire world lead to Agartha [Tibet]. The Lamas say that all the subterranean cavities in America are inhabited by these people [He seems to be speaking of Mongolians]

I think that certain American indian communities had the job of sentinel communities, guarding the entrances and passageways. Custer was confronted by indians who were much taller than the other ones, and they were on foot and carried mallet of stone lashed onto stick handle. After the battle, when the main body caught up with the remanants of Custer's ground, they went to a cave in a nearby canyon and blew it up and collapsed it.

I don't think the Chinese and Tibetans like the fact that we have our civilization on top of the cavern world cities and tunnel systems that lead to Tibet.

At the present moment, our situation doesn't look good.

All roads lead to Rome, and all tunnels lead to Tibet.

Cheers!

Yes sure @deandddd , I see at least 3 clear linkages of India with the Americas during the Prehistoric era :-

  1. The story of Virochana (Mahabali) called Viracocha in Peru

  2. The story of the Monkey God of Eastern Honduras

**In a very strange coincidence , the Brazilian President has invoked the story of Hanuman from Ramayan epic to thank India for the supply of COVID vaccines . Regardless of any political/ideological affiliations , this shows there may still exist some latent memories of the ancient Hanuman , in Latin America :-

  1. The highly mysterious Oriental statues and artefacts found deep inside caves of the Grand Canyon

Regards

Sidhartha,

Refering to the original post, the Navajo Indians could be descendants of the Navatala colonies.

Modern anthropologists live in an intellectual straight jacket, and exist to obscure the truth.

Cheers!

Well said @deandddd , anthropology like geology , is amongst the FAILED sciences . They have not served the causes they profess to champion .

Indeed , both these important disciplines have digressed so far away from reality , that it is hard to salvage them within their current "frameworks" :)) Only if they are willing to restart from scratch , can these two sciences be rescued from total irrelevance !

Regards

Sidhartha,

So true! Plato tells us that the civilization of Atlantis came to its end, "it "end", 12,000 years ago.

But they don't take such chronology into consideration. Plato also tells that after the geological rumbling started, the Atlanteans fled to the northern and southern shores of the Meditteranean. Along the southern shores, they went as far as Egypt. That means that Egypt was up and running, too.

Because they ignore such statements, statements from their own western culture, all of their chronology and conclusions that they arrive at are full of poppycock.

I could go on and on, but I'll just stop at this point.

Cheers!

@deandddd , anthropologists believe in Darwin's theory of evolution as the absolute truth - that certainly doesn't hold true for humans because our background is more complex than Darwin could imagine :))

Regards

Sidhartha,

Well spoken. Our evolution is through reincarnation, not through of genetic mishaps.

Cheers!

@deandddd , in any case , Darwin's theory of evolution , might work only for a special case - such as an isolated island in the Pacific Ocean , like the Galapagos...his theory was woefully inadequate , to explain evolution of species on the massive , interconnected landmasses such as Eurasia , or the Americas !

Regards

Sidhartha,

Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection is valid, but you are right about his idea of evolution; maybe in some small, isolated case.

Dean

@deandddd , don't count on his theory of natural selection either...sometimes disruptive events in nature can turn natural selection on it's head - where THE most dominant species , suddenly becomes THE most vulnerable !

Then there is Rupert Sheldrake's concept of "Morphic Resonance" i.e. templates that exist in nature and manifest when suitable conditions arise .

Think very deeply about this - how do mosquito larvae invariably "appear" in stagnant pools of water - who always brings them there ?? It's almost as if nature acts on cue !

Go to the most isolated of mountain lakes or deep wells in isolated desert regions - invariably they will be teeming with multiple varieties of fish and other marine creatures - who never fails to bring them there ??

Darwin was clueless to answer any of these anomalies...it will be best for science in this 21st century , to give Darwin's flawed theory a decent burial and move onto something more profound and in tune with nature :))

Regards

Well, the more I find out, the more I realize I don't know!

Dean

@deandddd , I believe the breakthrough in understanding of evolution will come as the genetic sciences advance further .

**One of the fascinating aspects that has come to light in recent years is what is called a "species continuum" i.e. the boundaries between one species and another may not be quite as rigid as they seem...for example a dog and a housefly may share upto 60% of their genome - even though they look so very different from each other !

Regards