Light passed through duck into 500 chicken eggs resulted in chicks that have duck features...

Very interesting research from some time ago - note I don't buy into this holographic universe concept as normally presented, but the following is interesting nonetheless and is NOT indicative of a "holographic universe" as currently used, but rather the aether and other influences that legacy physics of most of legacy academia refuses to embrace:

Korean scientist Dr. Dzang Kangeng received patent #N1828665 for a device that used microwaves to transfer the DNA-wave information of a duck into a pregnant mother hen. Roughly 80 percent of her eggs hatched as half-duck, half-chicken hybrids.

See section "Biological Oddities - 'When Life Doesn’t Match Our High School Textbooks'" in: Research Hub - AETHERIC

Notice section titled " DNA instructions carried by light" here: Consciousness and Our DNA

Dr. Dzang Kangeng in China showed that light passed through a duck into 500 chicken eggs resulted in chicks in which 80% had flat bills, 90% had eyes moved to a position similar to ducks and 25% had webbing between their toes.

Their offspring remained partial duck, partial chicken...

Dr. Gariaev directed green laser light through salamander eggs and then through frog eggs.

Salamanders hatched from the frog eggs...

He has coined the term "wave genetics."

Seemingly first finding its way to this web site circa 2002: The Wave, Probabilistic and Linguistic Representations of Cancer and HIV by Peter P. Gariaev, George G. Tertishny, Katherine A. Leonova.

Abstract: The basic assumptions of our work include the following: 1. the genome has a capacity for quasi-consciousness so that DNA words produce and help in the recognition of semantically meaningful phrases; 2. the DNA of chromosomes control fundamental programs of life in a dual way: as chemical matrixes and as a source of wave function and holographic memory; 3. processes in the substance-wave structures of the genome can be observed and registered through the dispersion and absorption of a bipolar laser beam. The present article brings forward considerable theoretical and experimental evidence in support of this model, and discusses its practical applications with respect to cancer and HIV therapeutic strategies.

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@Soretna , you may find this research relevant to the topic in question :-

Manipulation of single DNA molecules by using optically projected images

Yen-Heng Lin, Chen-Min Chang, and Gwo-Bin Lee


A new platform is presented that is capable of manipulating a single DNA molecule based on optically-induced dielectrophoretic forces. The ends of a single DNA molecule are bound with a micro-bead, which is then manipulated by interactions with optical images projected from a commercially available projector. Thus a single DNA molecule is indirectly manipulated by a projected animation pre-programmed using simple computer software. Real-time observation of the manipulation process is made possible by using a fluorescent dye and an oxygen scavenging buffer. Two types of DNA manipulation modes, specifically DNA elongation and rotation, are successfully demonstrated and are characterized. The maximum stretching force can be as high as 61.3 pN for a 10.1 μm bead. Experimental data show that the force-extension curve measured using this platform fits reasonably with the worm-like chain model. The developed platform can be a promising and flexible tool for further applications requiring single molecule manipulation.

©2009 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

In the past two decades, investigating single DNA molecules has attracted considerable interest in the fields of biology and nanotechnology [13]. It has been envisioned that the ability to stretch a single DNA molecule will yield numerous scientific insights from measurements of the mechanical properties [4] and the electrical properties [5] of a DNA elastic strand. Traditionally, relatively tedious procedures have been adopted to measure the properties of a DNA molecule including light scattering, sedimentation velocity, viscometry, electro-optics, and ligase-catalyzed cyclization [4]. However, these traditional approaches can only estimate the DNA properties by indirect calculation based on theoretical models. In contrast, several tools capable of directly manipulating a single DNA molecule have been demonstrated including magnetic tweezers [4,68], an atomic force microscope (AFM) probe tip [9,10], hydrodynamic forces [1117], electrical driving forces [1418], and optical tweezers [1923]. These direct approaches provide a more accurate method for investigation of the properties of a single DNA molecule.

For instance, the use of magnetic tweezers can directly measure the elasticity of a single DNA molecule [4]. Different salt concentrations with forces ranging from 0.01 to 10 pN have been investigated in this platform. Also, the tension and torsion forces present in magnetic tweezers is used to study the behavior of single a DNA molecule [6]. Additionally, magnetic tweezers generated by micro-fabricated copper coils have been presented by our research group [7, 8]. Either two-dimensional or three-dimensional micro-coils can be integrated onto a microfluidic chip to produce a local magnetic force for stretching a single DNA molecule. However, the use of magnetic tweezers may not provide enough spatial resolution. The calibration of the applied magnetic force is also relatively difficult. Another useful tool to manipulate a DNA molecule and to measure its mechanical properties is to use an AFM probe tip [9]. One end of a DNA molecule is attached onto the tip of an AFM probe while the other end is covalently bonded onto the surface of a substrate. Then the DNA molecule is pulled by the AFM probe to measure the DNA extension lengths [10]. This provides a straightforward method to directly investigate the elasticity of a DNA molecule. Nonetheless, the cost of an AFM and its probe are relatively high.

Hydrodynamic forces have also been widely employed to stretch a single DNA molecule. A micro-channel is used to achieve hydrodynamic focusing to elongate a single DNA molecule in the sample flow [11]. A low-Reynolds-number flow can be setup in a micro-channel, so that a long focused stream can be used to extend a DNA molecule. Furthermore, a nano-scale channel has been reported to stretch a DNA molecule through a similar hydrodynamic approach. Either a rectangular [12] or funnel-shape [13] nano-channel can be used to achieve this function. In addition, applying an electric field inside a nano-channel has also been demonstrated for DNA stretching [1416]. Fluids in the nano-channel can be driven by an electrokinetic force and thus a single DNA molecule can be elongated. Another ingenious method which uses a combination of hydrodynamic forces and an electric field was also reported to elongate a single DNA molecule [17]. This method can position the DNA without modifying its terminal bonds. Moreover, a single DNA molecule can be placed at a defined position on micro-fabricated metal electrodes using electrically driven self-assembly steps [18]. With this approach, DNA molecules with lengths in the micrometer range can be immobilized in the gap between the electrodes. However, even though the hydrodynamic force and the electric field can be used to elongate the DNA molecules, it is difficult to measure the applied force in such methods. Also, the fabrication process for a nano-scale channel is relatively complex and may be costly.

Alternatively, optical tweezers have been widely used to investigate the elasticity of a single DNA molecule. The force-extension curve has been precisely measured by optical tweezers [19,20]. A DNA molecule can be stretched to about 70% under a transition force of about 65 pN [20]. Different lengths of single- and double-stranded DNA were also investigated using optical tweezers [21]. Furthermore, fluorescent-stained DNA molecules were stretched and observed in real-time while manipulated by optical tweezers [22]. Recently, due to advances in micro-machining techniques, optical tweezers has also been integrated with micro-pipettes and micro-channels on a single chip [23]. However, although optical tweezers can precisely manipulate a single DNA molecule with controllable applied forces, the experimental setup is relatively complicated and expensive.

Recently, a new technology which is referred to as optoelectronic tweezers (OET) or optically-induced dielectrophoresis (ODEP) has been applied to manipulate micro-particles [24]. It is a flexible and user-friendly approach to manipulate a micro-particle to a desired position by using optical patterns, illuminated from a commercial projector. Recently, the OET has been reported to enable manipulation of nano-wires [25]. In this study, we demonstrate a new approach capable of stretching and revolving a single DNA molecule under real-time observation by using the ODEP platform. To the best of authors’ knowledge, this is the first time that ODEP has been used for the extension of a single DNA molecule. This developed platform can provide a simple and flexible tool to manipulate a single DNA molecule.

2. Materials and methods

2.1 Chip design

The experimental procedures are described as follows. First, two ends of a λ-phage DNA are modified with biotin in order to attach onto micro-beads or a substrate. The modified DNA and the micro-bead surface-modified with streptavidin are then incubated together to form the tethered-bead DNA. Meanwhile, the DNA is stained with fluorescent dye so that it can be observed in real-time. Then the tethered-bead DNA is placed into the ODEP platform. Finally, a high-frequency driving voltage is provided and an optical image is projected to manipulate the single DNA molecule. Before the DNA elongation process, one end of the DNA is anchored onto the substrate while the other end is bound with a micro-bead (Fig. 1(a) ). When an optical image is projected on a photoconductive substrate, the micro-bead can be manipulated to any position programmed by computer software and thus a single DNA molecule can be stretched indirectly. The elongation process can be then utilized to investigate the mechanic properties of single DNA molecules. Figure 1(b) also illustrates that a DNA molecule can be rotated either clockwise or counter-clockwise through the animation of optical images generated by computer software. This provides an extremely flexible and simple approach to manipulate a single DNA molecule.

figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 Schematic illustration of (a) the stretching of a single DNA molecule by using the ODEP platform. One end of the DNA is anchored onto the substrate and the other end of DNA is bound with a micro-bead. The ODEP platform can manipulate the micro-bead and thus, correspondingly, the attached DNA molecule. (b) Rotation of the tethered-DNA molecule is achieved by projecting a moving optical image.

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Figure 2(a) is a schematic illustration of the ODEP platform. The ODEP chip consists of a top indium-tin-oxide (ITO) glass substrate and a bottom ITO glass substrate with a photoconductive layer. The top and bottom ITO glasses are supplied with an alternating-current (AC) voltage. Before the light source illuminates the photoconductive layer, it has a high electrical impedance. After the light hits the photoconductive layer, electron-hole pairs can be excited and thus the impedance of the amorphous layer can be decreased by 4-5 orders of magnitude. Hence, the applied voltage will drop across the liquid layer and change the balance in the electric field, thus inducing a non-uniform electric field distribution between the top and bottom ITO glasses. The micro-beads are then induced with a DEP force when they are exposed to this non-uniform electric field. Therefore, the micro-beads can be manipulated by the optical image illuminating the photoconductive layer.

figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 (a) Conceptual illustration of the generation of the ODEP force. The ODEP chip consists of a top and a bottom layer. The top layer is an ITO glass and the bottom layer is another ITO glass deposited with amorphous silicon as a photoconductive layer. When the top and the bottom ITO layers are applied with an AC voltage, the electron-hole pairs are excited and thus the AC voltage will drop across the fluid layer when a light illuminates the photoconductive layer. Then the micro-bead experiences a dielectrophoresis force induced by this non-uniform electric field. (b) Schematic illustration of biotinylated deoxynucleoside triphosphates modified withλ-DNA sticky ends by using the Klenow fragment (3′→5′ exo-). Biotin is labeled at the ends of DNA through modified deoxynucleoside triphosphates, and dCTP-11-biotin.

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The time-averaged DEP force representing the interaction between the electric field and the induced dipole moment can be described as follows [26]:



where r is the radius of micro-beads, εm is the permittivity of the media surrounding the micro-beads, E is the root-mean-square value of the local electric field, and Re(fCM) is the real part of the Clausius–Mossotti factor, which can be represented as follows:



where σ is the conductivity of the micro-bead (p) or the medium (m), and ω is the angular frequency of the electric field.

2.2 Microfabrication

The chip fabrication process is briefly described as follows. Detailed information can be found in our previous work [27]. First, a cleaned glass substrate is sputtered with a 70-nm ITO as a conductive layer. Second, a 10-nm metal layer (molybdenum) is sputtered on top of the ITO layer to reduce contact resistance and to improve adhesion between the ITO glass and the amorphous silicon layer. Finally, a 1-μm amorphous silicon layer is deposited using a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process. All fabrication processes for the photoconductive layer are provided by a foundry service (Chi-Mei Optoelectronics Inc., Taiwan).

2.3 Sample preparation

The λ-phage DNA is purchased from New England Biolabs, USA. It is a double-stranded DNA helix comprised of 48,502 base pairs with a length of about 16-μm. Both ends are single-stranded with the 5′ ends overhanging with the following 12-base sequences, 5′ AGGTCGCCGCCC and 5′ GGGCGGCGACCT, where A, C, G, and T are the nucleotides adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine, respectively. The DNA molecules are stored in Tris-EDTA (TE) buffer with 10 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.0) and 1 mM EDTA.

2.3.1 Biotin modification of the DNA extremities

In this study, a biotinylation technique based on biotinylated deoxynucleoside triphosphates is adopted [28]. Figure 2(b) is a conceptual illustration for biotinylating two ends of a λ-phage DNA molecule. The biotinylated deoxynucleoside triphosphate, dCTP-11-biotin (NEL538001EA, PerkinElmer, USA), and three other deoxynucleoside triphosphates including dATP, dGTP, and dTTP (Promega, USA) are mixed together and then are incorporated in the λ-phage DNA by using a Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase (New England Biolabs, USA). The reaction is incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Then the corresponding deoxynucleoside triphosphate has filled in the 5′ overhanging λ-phage DNA and thus the biotin is now attached on the ends of the DNA strand.

In order to remove excess deoxynucleoside triphosphates and reaction enzyme, the biotinylated λ-phage DNA is purified using a phenol/chloroform extraction and an ethanol precipitation. First, the biotinylated DNA is mixed with a phenol/chloroform/isoamyl alcohol mixture to remove any protein contaminants. Then, the DNA is precipitated with 100% ethanol and 3 M sodium acetate. Finally, the DNA is washed with 70% ethanol to remove salts and small organic molecules. It is then re-suspended in 50 mM Tris buffer without any ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and hydrochloric acid. Because any ions contained in the buffer would decrease the ODEP force, all ionic species should be avoided in the working buffer.

The biotinylated λ-phage DNA is then suspended in 50 ng/μl of Tris buffer (50 mM Tris (pH 8.0)) for bead attachment. Two sizes of beads (4.5- and 10.1-μm) are used in this study. The 4.5-μm beads with a tosylactivated group (M-450 tosylactivated, Dynal, Norway) are first conjugated with a streptavidin molecule (10 μg/ml) by directly incubating for 2 hours. The 4.5-μm beads are the largest commercially-available ones conjugated with the tosylactivated group. In order to increase the induced force, the 10.1-μm polystyrene beads are surface-modified using a surface charge modification method. The 10.1-μm polystyrene (Duke Scientific, USA) beads are first modified with polyethylenimine (PEI, 10−3 M, Sigma-Aldrich, USA) to give them a positive surface charge by incubating them for 24 hours. Then the positively-charge beads are incubated with streptavidin molecules (10 μg/ml) for 2 hours. The negatively-charged streptavidin adheres to the surface of the polystyrene bead because of its affinity for positive charges. After the beads are modified with streptavidin, a concentration of 5x106 beads/ml is mixed together with the modified λ-phage DNA for at least 30 minutes. The beads will either randomly bind to either one or both ends of the DNA.

Since a DNA molecule is about 2 nm in diameter, it is difficult to directly observe it under a microscope. In order to visualize the stretching process of a single DNA molecule in real-time, YOYO-1 dyes (Molecular Probes Inc., USA) are used to stain the DNA molecule. The optimal staining condition is to keep the base pair to dye molecule ratio at 5:1. In order to extend the observation time before the fluorescent dye becomes bleached, the stained DNA solution is mixed with 4% β-mercaptoethanol, 50 g/ml glucose oxidase, and 2% glucose. Note that a catalase should be avoided because it would decrease the ODEP force dramatically [7]. The stained DNA in this oxygen scavenging buffer can be observed for at least 10 minutes.

2.4 Experimental setup

Figure 3 is a schematic illustration of the experimental setup for the DNA manipulation platform. The ODEP chip is mounted in a commercial microscope (BX-41, Olympus, Japan) for DNA observation and manipulation, which is equipped with a xenon light source (75 W xenon lamp, UXL-S75XE, Ushio Inc., Japan) and a filter set (excitation filter: 460-490 nm, dichroic mirror: 505 nm, emission filter: 515-550 nm, U-MWIBA, Olympus, Japan). A 60x oil-immersion objective lens is used to resolve the fluorescence image of a single DNA molecule. In order to manipulate DNA by using optical images, a commercial liquid crystal display (LCD) projector (TLP-X3000, TOSHIBA, Japan) connected to a personal computer is placed under the microscope. An objective lens and a 45° mirror (RPB3-10-550, Onset Electro-optics, Taiwan) are used to collect and to guide the optical image onto the ODEP chip. A function generator (Model 195, Wavetek, U.K.) and a power amplifier (790 Series, AVC Instrumentation, USA) are used to supply an AC voltage to generate the ODEP force. Finally, the evidence of DNA manipulation is recorded by a cooled charge-coupled device (CCD, CCD-300T-RC, DAGE-MTI, USA) connected to an image integrator (Investigator, DAGE-MTI, USA).

figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 The experimental setup for the manipulation of a single DNA molecule by using the ODEP platform.

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3. Results and discussion

In this study, we presented a new platform utilizing an ODEP force to manipulate a single DNA molecule. The single DNA molecule can be stretched or rotated simply by an optical image displayed from a commercial projector that is controlled by computer software. Using this platform, a DNA molecule can be manipulated by either fine-tuning the applied voltage while fixing the optical image or by fixing the applied voltage while moving the optical image. Furthermore, the applied force generated by the ODEP platform and the corresponding elongation length of the DNA molecule are also characterized.

3.1 Stretching DNA by fine-tuning the magnitude of the ODEP force

Figure 4 shows a single DNA molecule stretched by fine-tuning the magnitude of the ODEP force. The two ends of the DNA strand are first attached with micro-beads and stained with fluorescent dye. Then the bead-tethered DNA is placed into the ODEP chip. Some of the micro-beads would attach onto the surface of the chip substrate due to physical absorption. In Fig. 4, the micro-bead at the center is anchored to the substrate. A line-shaped light is projected under the anchored micro-bead to induce the required ODEP force. Due to the fact that the other end of the bead-tethered DNA bead is free floating, it is repelled by the negative ODEP force and thus the DNA molecule is elongated indirectly. The applied voltage ranges from 0 to 86.7 Vpp with a frequency of 70 kHz. Experimental data show that the higher the applied voltage, the longer the DNA is extended. The elongation length can be determined according by gradually increasing the magnitude of the ODEP force. The free micro-bead is repelled from the illuminated line when the ODEP repulsive force is in equilibrium with the DNA elastic force. At an operating condition of 86.7 Vpp, the DNA molecule is stretched to a length of 15.9-μm. This demonstrates that a single DNA molecule can be stretched to more than 90% of its length by applying a force less than 0.5 pN [4]. In this study, the experimental data show that the illuminated light can provide a sufficient force to elongate the DNA molecule. The stretching force generated by the ODEP force is calculated according to the worm-like chain (WLC) model [30]:



where Felasticity represents the DNA stretching force and R represents the DNA extension length. DNA has a typical persistence length (P) of about 50 nm. The contour length of the λ-DNA (L) is about 20-μm for a base pair to dye molecule ratio of 5:1. The thermal energy at 25 ◦C (KbT) is about 4.1×10−21 J. For the DNA extension length of 15.9-μm with the aforementioned operating conditions, the theoretical DNA stretching force is calculated to be 0.53 pN. Other stretching forces can be calculated using a similar approach.

Fig. 4 A single DNA molecule is stretched by gradually increasing the magnitude of the applied voltage, thus increasing the repelling ODEP force. At larger applied voltages, the DNA molecule is stretched longer (Media 1).

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3.2 Stretching and manipulating DNA using optical images

Another method to stretch a DNA molecule is to utilize an animated optical image projecting onto the chip. Figure 5 shows that a single DNA molecule can be successfully stretched by a series of optical images. The tethered-bead DNA is first placed into the ODEP chip. Some of the ends of the DNA are randomly attached onto the surface of the chip due to physical absorption. Under the fluorescent microscope, a DNA molecule is found with one end bound to a micro-bead and the other end with the substrate. A negative ODEP force is generated and a moving circular optical image is used to trap the micro-bead. Thus a single DNA molecule can be stretched to a programmed position with the aid of computer software. Also, it is also found that the concentration of the Tris buffer cannot be below 20 mM to avoid the adsorption of the DNA molecule onto the bead surface, after which the DNA molecule cannot be manipulated.

figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 A single DNA molecule is elongated by the interaction of a tethered micro-bead and optical images.

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A similar method can be used to rotate a DNA molecule. Figure 6 shows that a single DNA molecule can be successfully rotated either clockwise or counter-clockwise by a moving optical image. Note that, in order to visualize the manipulation of a single DNA molecule, the illumination light intensity has to be decreased by reducing the green component of the projector light source. The fluorescent dye, YOYO-1, staining the DNA molecule is excited at about a 509 nm wavelength which corresponds to a green color. The light source used to generate the required ODEP force may interfere with observations of the fluorescent DNA molecule. Reducing the green component of the light source will help improve observation of the manipulation process. However, some manipulation force will be sacrificed due to the decrease in overall illumination intensity. The operating conditions for stretching and rotating are 86.7 Vpp at 70 kHz with a reduced power intensity of 11.7 W/cm2. Note that the moving optical images are programmed by commercial software (FLASH) and projected onto the photoconductive material through a commercially available projector. In addition, the reduction in the green light is also controlled by the same software and the green intensity is set to be 200 on a full scale of 0~255. The most important contribution of this platform is its flexibility in manipulating the bead-tethered DNA through animated optical images programmed in a computer. Besides, the components of this platform are simpler than any other optical system for the manipulation of a single DNA molecule. For example, the optical tweezers system requires an extremely precise motion control system for manipulating a single DNA molecule. In contrast, by using the ODEP platform, one can easily manipulate DNA molecules with micrometer precision through computer-generated optical images.

figure: Fig. 6

Fig. 6 A bead-tethered single DNA molecule can be rotated either clockwise or counter-clockwise by using a moving optical image projected through a commercial projector (Media 2).

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3.3 Characterization of the ODEP forces for DNA extension

In order to characterize the applied force for DNA extension in this ODEP platform, a micro-bead is moved at a terminal velocity which is when the drag force acting on the micro-bead is in balance with the applied ODEP force. During the experimental process, the 10.1 and 4.5 μm beads were manipulated between a gap with a height of 15 μm. It is more accurate to include the wall effect in force calibration. Therefore, the DNA extension force is calculated based on the modified Stokes’ law [8]:



where r denotes the radius of the micro-bead, η denotes the viscosity of the fluid, h denotes the height of the gap, and v denotes the terminal velocity of the micro-bead. The term 9r/16h is the modified term when considering the wall effect in Stoke’s law. Figure 7 shows the relationship between the applied voltage and the ODEP force. Experimental data show that the induced force is increased when raising the applied voltage. The maximum force for DNA extension is measured to be about 61.3 pN for a 10.1-μm bead at an applied voltage of 86.7 Vpp and a frequency of 70 kHz when an illuminating power intensity of 17.2 W/cm2 is used. Obviously, the larger the bead size, the greater the ODEP force that can be generated. However, according to the experimental results, when the bead size is more than 10.1-μm, it is difficult to bind the DNA ends with such large micro-beads. It is due to the fact that beads more than 10.1-μm have a large enough surface area such that the entire single DNA molecule would easily attach along the bead surface [29] and the DNA molecule cannot be manipulated in this situation. Another important parameter affecting the ODEP force is the illumination power of the light source. During the manipulation process, in order to visualize the extending DNA molecule, reducing the green part of the illumination light source is necessary, as mentioned previously. Nevertheless, this also decreases the ODEP force since the illumination power is decreased from 17.2 W/cm2 to 11.7 W/cm2. Therefore, for the 10.1- and 4.5-μm beads, the ODEP forces are decreased about 5.0 times and 3.7 times, respectively.

Fig. 7 Relationship between the generated ODEP force and the applied voltage for 4.5- and 10.1-μm beads. The ODEP force is calibrated by Stokes’ law using the balance of the ODEP force and the drag force at the terminal velocity of the micro-bead.

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Figure 8 shows the relationship between the stretching force and the elongation length of a single DNA molecule with 4.5- and 10.1-μm beads. The stretching force is controlled by the applied voltage. Note that the ODEP platform requires a threshold driving voltage to generate the dielectrophoretic force. This is due to the fact that enough electron-hole pairs in the amorphous silicon have to be excited to induce the ODEP force. The threshold values of the driving voltages are experimentally found to both be 4.5 Vpp. For the 4.5- and 10.1-μm beads, the corresponding ODEP forces at these driving voltages are estimated to be about 0.8 and 28.9 pN at the full illuminating power, respectively. As shown in Fig. 8(a), the initial extension length for the 4.5- and 10.1-μm beads are measured to be 15.1- and 19.3-μm, respectively. When compared with the WLC model, this is suitable for estimating the extension length at an applied force of less than 5 pN [30], the trend in the force-extension curve measured with the ODEP platform is consistent with the one predicted by the WLC model (Fig. 8(b)). For 10.1-μm beads, the ODEP forces are estimated to be from 30.7 to 61.3 pN, which is within the β-form DNA range [19]. This indicates that the ODEP platform can be used for further DNA investigation. The developed platform therefore provides a simple and flexible approach to manipulate and to characterize a single DNA molecule. It also could be a promising tool for the manipulation of protein molecules.

figure: Fig. 8

Fig. 8 (a) Relationship between the applied ODEP force and the extension length of a single DNA molecule. (b) Experimental data show that the trend in elongation length is consistent with the WLC model.

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4. Conclusion

We have demonstrated a new platform for the manipulation of a single DNA molecule by using optical images projected from a commercially available projector. No complex photolithography and metal patterning processes were used to fabricate the device. Also, no complicated and expensive optical module was needed to setup this platform. A single DNA molecule was successfully stretched and rotated clockwise and counter-clockwise using this platform. A fluorescent dye and an oxygen scavenging buffer were used during the manipulation process so that the DNA molecule can be observed in real-time. The maximum force was measured to be 61.3 pN. Force-extension curves measured by this platform fit well with the WLC model. The developed platform offers a simple and flexible approach to investigate a single DNA molecule and also provides a promising tool for further macro-molecule manipulation such as protein molecules.


The authors would like to thank Chi-Mei Optoelectronics Inc. and Dr. T. C. Tseng’s Lab for technical support. We would also like to thank the Ministry of Education, Taiwan, R.O.C. for partial financial support under the NCKU Project of Promoting Academic Excellence & Developing World Class Research Centers. Partial financial support from the National Science Council is also greatly appreciated.


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@Soretna , here's some more on this topic - DNA Networks within living organisms can be modified using either sound vibrations (like chanting mantras) or light waves (especially blue light) , even both together...mind blowing stuff :-

Our dna can be reprogrammed by words and certain frequencies

This article is based on the book “Vernetzte Intelligenz” – Networked Intelligence

Russian scientists have shown that our DNA can actually be reprogrammed by words and certain frequencies. According to scientists only 10% of our DNA is being used for building proteins.

It is this subset of DNA where researchers are pointing their investigations to, their plan is to review and classify it again and they hope to learn something very interesting in the process.

The remaining 90% of the DNA is considered “junk DNA”, I know that many won’t agree with a term such as “Junk DNA” but let us continue.

Interestingly couple of years ago, new formulas from Russian scientists, specialized in biophysics and molecular biology showed that 7 percent of our DNA has a higher purpose and is not in any way ‘junk’. According to newer studies, the human DNA is a biological internet far superior than any artificial.

Russian biophysicist and molecular biologist Pjotr ​​Garjajev and his fellow scientists involved in the research exposed that, directly or indirectly, phoneme such as: clairvoyance, intuition, spontaneous and remote acts of healing, self-healing, affirmation techniques, unusual light/auras around people (namely spiritual masters), mind’s influence on weather patterns and much more.

In addition, there is evidence for a whole new type of medicine in which DNA can be influenced and reprogrammed by words and frequencies without cutting out and replacing single genes.

There are 6 main research points:

1) Two different branches of science were used and fused together:
Linguistics and Genetics to explore the 90% of “Junk DNA”.

2) Their results, findings and conclusions:
Our DNA is not only responsible for building our body but also serves as data storage and communication. The Russian linguists found that the genetic code, especially in the apparently useless 90%, follows the same rules as all our human languages.

To this end they compared the rules of syntax (the way words are put together to form phrases and sentences), semantics (the study of meaning in language forms) and the basic rules of grammar.

Researchers were able to find out that the alkalines of our DNA follow a regular grammar and do have set rules just like our languages. So human languages did not appear coincidentally but are a reflection of our inherent DNA. Researchers also explored the vibrational behavior of DNA.

They were able to dine out that living chromosomes function just like solitonic/holographic computers using the endogenous DNA laser radiation.”

This means that they managed to modulate certain frequency patterns onto a laser ray and with it influenced the DNA frequency and thus the genetic information itself. The basic structure of DNA-alkaline pairs and language is of the same structure.

3) So how is this one?
With the use of words and sentences, since words and sentences give out a vibrational frequency, like mantras or intonation of language.

4) The DNA substance in living tissue and not in vitro will always react to frequency vibration…
…of the language, provided by the laser beams, AKA modulated light, and even radio waves, if of course, appropriate frequencies are used and selected for each substance you want to reschedule.

5) Scientifically explained:
Autogenous training is a psychotherapeutic technique based on passive concentration on physical sensations.

It is closer to the meditation techniques than to those of suggestion or hypnosis. Hypnosis can have strong effects on humans and their bodies since it is entirely normal and natural for our DNA to react to language.

Russian researchers worked on devices that could influence the cellular metabolism through proper radio frequencies and modulated light and thus repair genetic defects.

Garjajev and his group succeeded in proving that with this method chromosomes damaged by x-rays, can be repaired and they even captured information patterns of a particular DNA and transmitted it to another, thus reprogramming cells to another genome.

According to Garjajev and his research team, this experiment aimed at the potential of vibration and frequency waves on genetics, which are believed to have greater influence on the formation of organisms than the biochemical processes of alkaline sequences.

It is known that Shamans, Esoteric and spiritual teachers have known for a long time the potential of our body and mind, they have known that our body is programmable by language, words and thought.

Now thanks to Garjajev and his team, this “theory” has been scientifically proven and tested. Each individual must work on the inner processes and maturity in order to establish a conscious communication with the DNA.

The relationship with the conscience of the individual, is the degree of vibration frequency and the ability to connect with DNA through meditation. It seems that after all, everything is connected.

6) The team of Russian scientists also discovered that our DNA can cause very disturbing patterns in a vacuum, which can lead to the production of magnetized wormholes.

Wormholes are believed to be the microscopic equivalents of the so-called Einstein-Rosen bridges in the vicinity of black holes.

These are believed to be tunnel connections between entirely different areas in the universe through which information can be transmitted outside of space and time.

Researchers state that this super communication process is more efficient in a relaxed state.

According to Garjajev and his team, stress, worry or a hyperactive intellect can prevent this DNA communication, thus making the information distorted and eventually useless.

So , is DNA the next Internet ??

DNA-the phantom effect, quantum hologram and the etheric body

Linda Gadbois

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While modern day science used to look at DNA as a material object that was fixed in nature, therefore unable to be changed, where we were at the “mercy of our genes” so to speak, we now know that this isn’t true. DNA is actually composed of a liquid crystalline substance that acts as a form of antenna, receiver, and transmitter of holographic information. It’s constantly in the process of taking in information from its environment and the ether as signs, archetypes, and imagery and translating it into holograms. It operates predominately out of radionics where whatever frequency its tuned to, is acts as a receiver for various forms of information within that same frequency that comes in as an acoustic wave that serves to form an electromagnetic field (EMF) as a holographic shape that’s composed initially of subtle energy, which provides the blueprint or spatial mapping for constructing an exact replica as its material equivalent. Information inherent in the Ether (Akasha) always comes as a “pairing” or “wave coupling” (like the double helix) that contains both an acoustic sound and optical (visual) image as the geometric patterning inherent in the vibratory frequency.

The two waves of information form an interference pattern that together produce a 3-D holographic image as the subtle template for constructing the material body through a growth and development process. This holographic image as an invisible energy field organizes and animates matter into what’s called the “phantom effect”. This phantom is an invisible 3-D shape as a field formed out of information as a dynamic series of interrelated planes or parallel interlaced and correlating dimensions that operate without any cross-talk to form a chain-of-association as phase conjugation adaptive resonance. When one wave (Monad) resonates with another of the same or similar frequency, they’re absorbed into each other forming an interference pattern (Dyad), where certain properties are cancelled out or contradicted, and others are matched and amplified. This adaptation process reformulates the initial generic form (archetype) into a unique variation as the couplings offspring or combination. This reformulating of internal properties to form a new whole comes by way of what we call “natural selection” as the interaction of complementary opposites that either activate or inactivate each other.

When studying DNA from a purely material perspective of constructing proteins out of encoded genetic information as the selection of qualities from each parent, it was determined that only about 2% of our DNA accounted for this process and the other 98% was what they called “junk DNA”, which simply meant they didn’t know what it was used for. We now know that the other 98% actually serves as a form of memory bank where information is both written or encoded, and read or decoded, to form a virtual reality out of the information as the pattern or configuration inherent in the vibratory frequency. This works in much the same way the Akashic field of Esoteric Sciences works, where information is contained within the astral plane as archetypal ideas that serve as a generic prototype for creating in the physical realm and are accessed and absorbed into the mind through sympathetic resonance. Within this same astral plane is also stored “thought-forms” produced by humans as emotional memories that exist as a holographic template that’s “recorded” on the Ether (the Akashic book of Life), and not only forms the memory of our soul and body, but also populates the Astral plane of what we call “the Collective Unconscious”, or mass consciousness with virtual memories. Our DNA as a crystalline transmitter and receiver, draws in (resonates with) the thought-forms of others (group mind) as well as ideas from the higher dimension of the mental plane of Universal archetypes, where both come as the holographic information that ultimately serves to program our DNA.

DNA operates by the same principles as the mind and brain, where the acoustic aspect of information as “words” acts to form a visual holographic image in the imagination that turns the idea inherent in the words into a virtual reality. It translates ideas that are communicated by talking about them, whether through our own thoughts as internal dialogue, or as listening to someone else talk, into visual imagery as living scenarios. It comes as words, sentences, paragraphs, and pages of written and spoken script that forms visual imagery in our mind’s eye as we read it (absorb it). DNA works by way of the same principles as the mind and neurons of the brain and body. It decodes words into 3-D realities as the basis for organizing matter into the biological form that corresponds to the image as an archetypal idea. This is represented in Sacred Geometry by the Tetrad (Tetragrammaton), which is the physical outward reflection and projection of the Triad (inner imagining) that emerges naturally out of the Dyad, which symbolizes an interference pattern as the coupling of two wave forms (double helix) of the same frequency to produce a new whole through coherence. Most spiritual texts describe God as the creator calling forth all material life using words as breath that moves across the water (liquid crystal), causing a form to rise up and take shape.

While the genetic make-up of our body doesn’t change very much throughout our lifetime, our inner constitution as our character and mental paradigm (vibratory structure) can often change quite drastically. As our inner constitution changes, how we see and what we see in the outer world changes simultaneously. This is because the inner and the outer act as two wave forms that resonate with each other forming an interference pattern that activates different aspects while deactivating others, changing how it’s configured. We only see in everything else what’s of the same nature (frequency) as we are. As we grow, develop into higher states, and transform mentally and emotionally, how things appear to us changes accordingly. You know when you’ve undergone transformation of some form by the fact that you begin seeing others and the world in general in a different way. What we notice and how we interpret things to give them meaning changes as an outer reflection of our inner state.

DNA, like the mind, is a fluid-like substance that’s always being re-informed by an energetic exchange of subtle energy with everything else around it that’s of a similar vibration causing it to constantly flux and morph. It’s like a shimmering luster morphing moment by moment based on what new information or qualities it’s absorbing from the environment that modifies its state. Words carried on a certain frequency are naturally inducted into the individual mind where they form an internal image as the reality indicated by the words. Whenever our mind is in a passive and receptive state, such as meditation and hypnosis (Theta-Alpha state), where there’s no editing or resistance from the conscious mind (outer awareness), ideas are readily taken in as suggestion, allowed to rise up in the imagination and take hold, and entire realties as an experience are constructed out of them. These holographic realities create a form of inner experience that acts directly on the subconscious mind as the body’s consciousness (DNA), to program it through virtual memories.

Matter as particles held together by an invisible electromagnetic field is what forms the primary substance of what we call reality. Matter itself doesn’t “possess or generate” consciousness of its own, but acts as the passive receptor for consciousness as vibratory information that structures it into a holistic biological living system. DNA acts as the subtle antenna and receiver for acoustic information that forms a holographic image as an electromagnetic field that provides the blueprint as the etheric body used to construct the physical body. Form and properties always indicates function and how a system operates and behaves. Whenever we change the information used to structure and operate a system, we change how the system forms, expresses, and functions as a whole. The genetic code of our DNA isn’t static and fixed, but rather dynamic and always in the process of transforming based on the information as language of some sorts that it acts to absorb, interpret, and shape into an idea.

Scalar energy, as subtle energy, readily moves through and into matter and divides forming an electromagnetic field that serves to organize astral light as essence (photons) into the holographic reality as one possibility (potential) inherent in the scalar wave. Scalar waves exist as a unified field of subtle energy that exists everywhere as what we call “empty space”. This empty space, that’s commonly called a quantum vacuum, isn’t empty at all, but rather filled with holographic information as archetypes used to form, hold together, and sustains the entire material world. It’s the invisible field that organizes matter into organic and inorganic biological systems that are comprised of both an active (animate) and passive (inanimate) aspects.

What this shows us is that our DNA as our subconscious mind or body consciousness is literally programmed by our own thoughts and internal dialogue that are imagined as realities, and from various forms of media that act as suggestion and become the nature of our thoughts. What we hear outwardly forms a picture of reality inwardly. This inward picture formed out of hearing something someone says, becomes a part of our thoughts and provides a holographic image that imprints the DNA of our body with that information as a form of genetic code. DNA, like the mind itself, has the ability to both write and read genetic information. Most of our thoughts are formed from what we’ve been taught or heard being said, that we incorporate in a harmonious fashion to form our mental paradigm as a working model for perceiving and interpreting the outer world. Any information sent on radio/microwaves in the form of language and pictures, that we take in and think about, not only becomes a part of our vibratory essence in terms of our thinking and feeling, but also as the programming for the DNA of our molecular structure as a corresponding physical equivalent, or the reality inherent in the thoughts.

As we think through a form of internal dialogue where we’re talking to ourselves, or whatever we hear and listen to going on around us that we take in and actually think about, turning it into an imagined reality, we’re encoding ourselves with that information as a form of hypnotic suggestion. The most important aspect of our physical development and well-being comes from our thoughts and what type of ideas we expose ourselves to and actively engage in. Anytime we’re watching TV, listening to the radio, music, talking on our cell-phone, browsing the internet reading and watching things, we’re “programming ourselves” with that information. We’re becoming “one with it” by creating an inner reality out of it, and we’re tuning ourselves to that same vibration. What we hear and watch becomes a part of our natural thoughts. All we’re ever really doing is running the same “type of ideas” through our mind over and over, changing them only through adaptive resonance as a modified application to a different or unique scenario.

The most important aspect of our personal development is controlling our own thoughts, intentionally directing our attention onto desirable and beneficial ideas, and monitoring what we expose ourselves to in terms of others and various forms or media. Whomever or whatever we associate with, we take in and become like. Spoken words, whether internally or externally, form holographic images in our mind that are impressed on the ether, and permanently recorded as a memory. Just as we live our life out of memory, thinking and dwelling in the past as a way of creating the future in the present by using the same idea to create a new variation, our body is regenerated and sustained out of the same memory. The mind forms an astral image as a hologram that imprints the etheric body with the information of that image.

The etheric body as an electromagnetic field uses that same holographic imagery to organize and animate the cellular structure of the body to form a corresponding metaphorical equivalent. The parallel planes that ultimately result in our physical body, operate as a form of “step down process” or phases of vibration becoming a material form through a chain-of-association as charged plasma, that organizes essence as a form of gas, that coagulates into a liquid-light form, and ultimately results in a solid form. The causal field of the Luminiferous Aether or Akashic Field of vibratory frequencies as archetypal information is absorbed into our mind and shaped into a personal reality that simultaneously elicits an emotional response to our own thoughts, infusing them with meaning that becomes the “motivating force” that animates them into a storyline or dialogue of some kind. This imaginary sensory reality is simultaneously received by, interpreted, and used to produce an equivalent effect in the etheric hologram of the body, reprogramming and modifying it accordingly. Our mind receives information that it turns into emotional thoughts that act as a blueprint for shaping our material body, both inwardly and outwardly. We literally become what we think and imagine.

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