Wind doesn't just blow on Earth's surface but deep inside too, scientists find- below Panama !

List members , this is a truly INCREDIBLE finding ! Now it does look like we Hollow Earth theorists will prevail sooner than later :))

Wind doesn't just blow on Earth's surface but deep inside too, scientists find

Wind from the Earth's middle layer, dubbed 'mantle wind', blows through a 1500 km long hidden channel below Panama, as per a recent study.

(](| Edited By: DNA Web Team |Source: DNA webdesk |Updated: Dec 28, 2021, 06:37 AM IST

A team led by researchers from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in US recently uncovered the existence of a 1500 kilometre (900 mile) long passageway deep beneath Panama in Central America and the Galapagos Islands in East Pacific Ocean. Here, materials from the Earth’s middle layer, the mantle, blow through a slab window below Panama in what they call ‘mantle wind’.

The discovery came to light after the team discovered “anomalous geochemical compositions” underneath Panama. Their findings were published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences back in November. David Bekaert, postdoctoral scholar at WHOI, and lead author of the paper, explained, “We can compare volcanic systems to the body of a living organism; when the organism bleeds, it's kind of like magma bleeding out of the Earth. And you can measure the composition of that magma, just like you can measure a blood type. In this study, we measured an unexpected volcanic gas composition, sort of like when a human has a rare blood type. In the case of the Earth, we then try to explain where it came from in terms of deep geological processes."

Researchers collected material from a hot spring in Panama to trace the movement inside Earth's middle layer. (Image credit: Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution)

The findings of the research show that a wind similar to what blows on Earth’s surface also blows laterally through shallow parts of the middle layer after originating in the deep interiors.

This is a rare finding as generally material is unable to pass through as the edges of tectonic plates, called "slabs" acts as barriers. But the channel under Panama seems to have a “slab window” allowing the “mantle wind” to flow through. Lead author Bekaert said about the findings, “We found that in particular places of Central America, namely western Panama and behind the volcanic arc in Costa Rica, we have some exotic signatures [of geochemistry] that really resemble what you have in the Galápagos Islands”

He added, “Just beneath Panama, there is a hole, a window through the slab, that allows for the influx of this mantle component.”



Makes me sick they still keep preaching the bull crap planetary structure with NO foundational science whatsoever. We keep seeing little bits and pieces of the truth peeping out of the cracks, but the cavern worlders have such a hold on society that it is effectively illegal to explore fact, true data and truth generally. :rage:


The article speaks of winds flowing out of a cave or caves in the Galápagos Islands, too. I don’t doubt a deep origin. No surprise there.

But I think that we should put two and two together and surmise wherefrom the exotic species of the Galapagos come from, and the true reason for the island having such restricted and limited access.

“Wherefrom” are the cavern worlds below.

Another “bingo” for this list!


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Now guess what @deandddd , Galapagos Islands do have some really mysterious Lava Tubes (especially the island of Santa Cruz)...hmm !

Mapping lava tubes in the Galapagos

by Diana Lutz, Washington University in St. Louis

Mapping lava tubes in the GalĂ pagos

A lava tube once filled with red-hot magma flowing down a volcano dwarfs the cavers exploring it. The keyhole profile of this lava tube, on the volcanic island of Santa Cruz. suggests the floor of an upper tube may have collapsed into a lower tube from an earlier eruption. The “rope” handing down into the tube is actually a tree root. The islands have no fresh water, and the plants in the jungle canopy seek water everywhere — or just enough humidity to make it through the dry season. Credit: AARON ADDISON

( —Yearly expeditions to explore the lava tubes on the famed archipelago will culminate in an international symposium to be held there next year.

Whatever you did for spring break, WUSTL's Aaron Addison and Bob Osburn have you beat. They spent spring break mapping lava tubes—giant tubes through which red-hot rock once flowed—within a volcano on the island of Santa Cruz in the Galàpagos.

Despite the fame of the GalĂ pagos, many of its lava tubes, home to dark-adapted species unknown to science, have never been explored.

This year, during spring break, Addison, Osburn, and a team of nine cavers, were racing to map as many tubes as possible on Santa Cruz, which will be the venue for the 16th International Volcanospeleology Conference to be held March 15-22, 2014.

Totally tubular

Addison and Osburn saw their first GalĂ pagos lava tube during an Earth and Planetary Science field trip to the islands in the spring of 2006. Addison, Director of Geographical Information Systems & Data Services, and Osburn, a laboratory administrator for the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, both of whom are speleologists, made a little side trip to a lava tube called Cueva Gallardo, just to see what a lava tube looked like.

One look and they knew they would have to come back to the islands.

But getting permits to work in the Galàpagos, 97 percent of which is a conservation park, is notoriously difficult. Fortunately they made a well-connected friend on the same trip: Theofilos Toulkeridis, a faculty member at the Escuela Politécnica del Ejército who does geological research in Galàpagos.

With Toukeridis's help they were able to arrange trips in 2009, 2011 and this year.

The international conference will be hosted by Toulkeridis and co-chaired by Addison and Toulkeridis.

Mapping lava tubes in the GalĂ pagos

Osburn in a drained magma chamber on the southern flank of Sierra Negra, the largest volcano in the GalĂ pagos. On the island of Isabela, Sierra Negra last erupted in October 2005. Osburn says the startling colors are due to oxidation of the iron in the lava, most likely by gases streaming from the magma below. The color palette is bit wider than normal, he says, perhaps because conditions were more varied and harsher than usual. Credit: PETER SPROUSE

Into the magma chamber

The GalĂ pagos is a hotspot volcanic chain formed by a mantle plume, or upwelling of abnormally hot rock, in the Pacific Ocean near the Equator. As a tectonic plate drifts over the hot spot, magma ascending from below, melts, segregates from the rock and erupts to form a volcano.

A chain of volcanoes is formed as the crustal plate creeps over the hotspot. In a typical hot-spot volcanic chain, such as the Hawaiian islands, the islands at one end of the chain are older and dormant and those at the other end are younger and still active.

![Mapping lava tubes in the Galàpagos]( "The WUSTL expeditions have been to the southern flank of Sierra Negra on Isabela and to Cerro Crocker on Santa Cruz. Most of the people in the Galàpagos live on Santa Cruz and San Cristobal islands. Access to all of the islands is carefully controlled, but especially to Fernandina both because it is an active volcano—it last erupted April 2009—and because it is the only island still without invasive species. Credit: Daniel Feher/, via WIKIMEDIA COMMONS")

The WUSTL expeditions have been to the southern flank of Sierra Negra on Isabela and to Cerro Crocker on Santa Cruz. Most of the people in the Galàpagos live on Santa Cruz and San Cristobal islands. Access to all of the islands is carefully controlled, but especially to Fernandina both because it is an active volcano—it last erupted April 2009—and because it is the only island still without invasive species. Credit: Daniel Feher/, via WIKIMEDIA COMMONS

The theory doesn't quite work for the GalĂ pagos, however. The GalĂ pagos hot spot lies close to the GalĂ pagos spreading center, a mid-ocean ridge where the ocean crust is pulling apart, generating huge volumes of lava that is probably contaminating the hot-spot lava. The chemistry of the lavas suggests at least four reservoirs of magma are feeding the hot spot.

"Most volcanos do not produce lava tubes," Osburn says. 'To get a tube the lava has to be fluid (basaltic rather than rhyolitic) and fairly hot. The eruption has to be fairly voluminous so that the flow continues long enough to channelize and for the channel to roof over. Volcanos that erupt fluid basaltic lavas tend to form shield volcanos with flat profiles and gentle slopes, which also favor the formation of long-lasting lava tubes."

While the team was mapping the caves there was a torrential downpour unlike anything the locals had ever seen, and water came flooding into the tubes they were exploring.

"Lava tubes form because cooling lava is a fantastic insulator," Addison says. "As the lava begins to race down the slopes of the volcano, its outside cools much faster than the core, but because the cooled lava is such a good thermal insulator, the core remains superheated and can flow long distances, in some cases tens of kilometers."

Mapping the tubes

During this spring's expedition, Addison kept a blog of the team's adventures, called "Galàpagos Cave Exploration—2013"

that is full of astonishing images of the tubes (and a gorgeous photo of a fever of manta rays swimming off the pier at Puerto Ayora on Santa Cruz).

Mapping lava tubes in the GalĂ pagos

Team members Rick Haley of the Cave Research Foundation, a nonprofit group dedicated to the exploration and conservation of caves, and (far ahead) Toulkeridis in a lava tube on Santa Cruz. The “benches”” or ridges at the sides of the tube form when lava flows at the same level for some time. On the ceiling is a blister, a pocket that somehow filled with air while the lava was cooling. Credit: AARON ADDISON

"Despite its romantic associations, the GalĂ pagos is a very hostile place to do research," Addison says. "The equator runs through the northern part of the archipelago, so it's very hot and the days are very long. In the highlands, it rains almost every day. It wears you down," he says.

They stayed in a hotel that cost $14 a night, with only a fan for cooling, and not even that during the three total-island blackouts when the diesel generators broke down.

They located tubes by talking to local ranch owners who were often able to lead them to openings to "tunnels" on their land. Once they found a tube, they took a GPS fix at its opening. Then, as they walked the tube, they charted the heading, elevation and distance between selected "stations," and used those measurements to draw plan and profile maps of the tube.

Mapping lava tubes in the GalĂ pagos

Addison’s field notebook. To the upper left are station numbers. From station 13 to 14, the distance was 15.87 meters, the heading was 210.5 degrees and the elevation was -2.5 degrees. These measurements were used to make the plan view of the tube. The small ovals to the side of the plan view are cross sections of the tube. The keyhole cross section and ladder to the upper right was formed when the upper tube collapsed into a lower one. The dotted circle beneath an ellipsoidal cross section downstream of that point indicates that here the two tubes run in parallel.

They'll be back to do it again for the international symposium – or sooner if they can organize the funds.

In the meantime we may all be able to participate as well, if only vicariously. In 2012 Addison made the trip to the GalĂ pagos as a consultant for Colossus Productions, a production company shooting an IMAX movie of the GalĂ pagos starring David Attenborough. The film, called GalĂ pagos 3D, has been screened in the United Kingdom but has yet to be released in the United States. It features appearance both by Aaron Addison and his fellow WUSTL-affiliated GalĂ pagos enthusiast, Stephen Blake, who studies the migration habits of the giant tortoise.


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There Is a worldwide conspiracy that even goes down to the level of public schools and text book publishers.

When you start to look around you, it gets eerie, fast!


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That is fascinating! Thanks for sharing.

Thanks @SilverMoon , you may also find it interesting to watch this video about Los Gemelos - the world's LARGEST pit crater , rather twin craters , on the Santa Cruz island , in the Galapagos :-


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That was beautiful. I would love to see it in real life.


The lava tubes in the photos seem to be so symetrical and so straight at times that it makes it hard for me to believe that they were created in a haphazard manner.


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"Wind doesn't just blow on Earth's surface but deep inside too"

The Macuxies know ...


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@deandddd , there is also the "wind cave" of South Dakota that could prove such a phenomenon exists .


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(YouTube Link)

Thanks for sharing the video @Soretna , this "wind cave" happens to be the most unique cave in the world for the strange geological formation called "boxwork" found inside it...I sense the wind blowing up from inner earth might have created the special conditions needed for such extensive boxwork formations to crystallize across these caves !


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