, let me begin this email by saying - be prepared to be shocked and astounded by what I am going to share in this post...many of the species
on Earth's surface , including humans , domesticated animals and the common plants eg. the humble potato , the sweet apple , the flower of the banana plant
, possibly have a hybrid origin (caused artificially) . Part of the "unknown" gene pool in such cases probably comes from inner Earth , since no other terrestrial source has been found . Hybrid species are characterised by certain biological problems , that other creatures do not experience - such as infertility , (a growing problem in humans , nothwithstanding the historical population growth) . The Gorilla is a hybrid of the chimpanzee and the giant African wild hog (wild boar) . Folks
, this did NOT happen in nature . Some ancient MASTER geneticist artificially created the Gorilla by blending the genes of two incompatible species (chimpanzee and the giant African wild hog) .
some of you may be repulsed or even disgusted by the "disclosure" , that follows , so I would advise caution in reading further , if you find such information disturbing . Honestly , when I first realised this
, I was greatly repulsed by it too , but over time have come to terms with such "unpalatable truths" :))
ancient times , there are accounts of villages having been burned down by invaders , wherein , some unfortunate infants got burnt and their flesh smelled like pork ?? ** Human and pig genes match (is this why pork is forbidden to be eaten by certain sects of Jews , Muslims , even Christians - since it would be like cannibalism ? There also some mythological stories around the wild boar) . Is
this why the sinister company , Monsanto , has been trying hard to patent the pig genome and gain exclusive rights to it , so as to dominate the Pharma industry ?
Two genomic studies claim to provide crucial data for improving pig stock and biomedical research
[https://api.whatsapp.com/send?text=Human%20and%20pig%20genes%20match%20https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/human-and-pig-genes-match-39590](https://api.whatsapp.com/send?text=Human and pig genes match https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/human-and-pig-genes-match-39590)
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Vibha Varshney ](https://www.downtoearth.org.in/author/vibha-varshney-50)
Last Updated: Saturday 04 July 2015
In 1997, Dhani Ram Baruah, a
cardiac surgeon in Assam tried to transplant the heart and lungs of a pig into a patient. The patient died and Baruah was arrested for breaking the law governing human transplantation. Despite the fact that pigs provide pharmaceutical-grade heparin and heart valves for transplantations, whole organ transplantation between different animals usually fail due to genetic incompatibility.
At that time, the genome of neither man nor pig was known. While human genome was deciphered in 2003, two studies published on November 14 provide some insight into pigs’ genome. Although it cannot be said if the information would have helped Baruah’s patient, the researchers claim the studies provide crucial data for improving pig stock and biomedical research.
What the two studies found
- Physiology of the Wuzhishan pigs and humans is 84 per cent similar at the genetic level
genes involved in coronary artery disease were very much alike in humans and pigs, there are several important differences that need to be
taken into account in future research
studies identified 112 positions in the genome where pig protein has the same amino acid that is implicated in a human disease. This supports
the use of pig in studies on human diseases
between domestic and wild pigs revealed that European and Asian breeds were distinct, suggesting the pigs were domesticated independently in western Eurasia and East Asia
pig has more unique olfactory genes than humans, mice or dogs. This means that while pigs can smell things humans and other animals cannot, their sense of taste does not keep up and they end up eating everything
The studies have been published in Nature and GigaScience. The Nature study by the Swine Genome Sequencing Consortium presents the genome of wild boar and domestic pig, an economically important breed. The GigaScience study, led by researchers from the BGI (a global collaboration on genomic research), Beijing Institute of Animal Science and Chinese Academy of Agriculture Science, focuses on a miniature pig used in medical research.
The miniature Wuzhishan pig is extensively inbred and individuals are genetically similar. Its small size makes it easy to handle and useful for medical research. The team looked at genes and protein domains that pigs and humans share. These are important targets for drugs. The researchers found the physiology of the two is 84 per cent similar at the genetic level.
But they also noted that while genes involved in coronary artery disease
were very much alike in humans and pigs, there were several important differences that need to be taken account of in future research. On the positive side, the research showed that the miniature pig does not have hidden viruses in its genome. These viruses get transferred to humans during xenotransplantation or transplantation of organs or parts of organs from one species to another. The finding, thus, shows that Wuzhishan pig is a viable research material.
For the study published in Nature, researchers compared the genome of domestic pig with that of wild boar. They collected wild boar genome samples from different parts of Europe and Asia. They found that the Asian and European wild boars had significant genetic differences. This,
they say, possibly happened when the two separated from each other roughly one million years ago. Comparisons between domestic and wild pigs also revealed that European and Asian breeds were distinct, suggesting the pigs were domesticated independently in western Eurasia and East Asia.
The results also show that some gene families are evolving faster in domestic pig. These include olfactory genes and genes that confer immunity. The pig has more unique olfactory genes than humans, mice or dogs. This means that while pigs can smell things humans and other animals cannot, their sense of taste does not keep up and they end up eating everything. Pigs have fewer bitter taste receptor genes than those involved in perception of sweet and umami flavours. Also, the bitter taste receptor genes in pigs are lesser in number than those in humans.
** The studies identified 112 positions in the genome where pig protein has
the same amino acid that is implicated in a human disease. This supports the use of pig in studies on human diseases. Some of the protein aberrations that pigs share with humans are associated with obesity, diabetes, dyslexia, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. This understanding of the genetic origins of modern pigs is important for their breeding and to find new ways to deal with old and emerging diseases , such as SARS or the dreaded "swine flu" .**
Swine Genome …
Beijing Institute of …
**Before you read the next article , let me clarify , Pigs are NOT the ancestors of humans , but the domesticated pig's genome shows astonishing similarity to humans , especially from an organ transplant perspective
. Domesticated pigs appeared abruptly just 10,000 years ago . There is no prior fossil record of them . So how did the aggressive wild boar , turn into the docile domesticated pig ?? Well , some ancient geneticist has artificially created a human wild boar hybrid - equivalent to a domesticated pig
. Why ?? Because wild boars are very dangerous to hunt and whoever created the docile domesticated pig , wanted to provide an easy source of meat to primitive humans . This lead to settled living instead
of nomadic behaviour and gradually caused humans to build villages and towns for a stable lifestyle .
A chimp-pig hybrid origin for humans?
by John Hewitt , Phys.org
Comparison of human and chimp chromosomes. Credit: science.kqed.org/quest/2008/05/12/chromosome-fusion-chance-or-design/
(Phys.org) —These days, getting a Ph.D. is probably the last thing you want to do if you are out to revolutionize the world. If, however, what you propose is an idea, rather than a technology, it can still be a valuable asset to have. Dr. Eugene McCarthy is a Ph.D. geneticist who has made a career out of studying hybridization in animals. He now curates a biological information website called Macroevolution.net
where he has amassed an impressive body of evidence suggesting that human origins can be best explained by hybridization between pigs and chimpanzees. Extraordinary theories require extraordinary evidence and McCarthy does not disappoint. Rather than relying on genetic sequence comparisons, he instead offers extensive anatomical comparisons, each of
which may be individually assailable, but startling when taken together. Why weren't these conclusions arrived at much sooner? McCarthy
suggests it is because of an over-dependence on genetic data among biologists. He argues that humans are probably the result of multiple generations of backcrossing to chimpanzees, which in nucleotide
sequence data comparisons would effectively mask any contribution from pig.
Generally speaking, interspecies hybrids—like mules, ligers (lion-tiger hybrids), or zedonks (zebra -donkey
hybrids)—are less fertile than the parents that produced them. However,
as McCarthy has documented in his years of research into hybrids, many crosses produce hybrids that can produce offspring themselves. The mule,
he notes, is an exceptionally sterile hybrid and not representative of hybrids as a whole. When it comes time to play the old nuclear musical chairs and produce gametes, some types of hybrids do a much better job. Liger females, for example, can produce offspring in backcrosses with both lions and tigers. McCarthy also points out that fertility can be increased through successive backcrossing with one of the parents, a common technique used by breeders. In the case of chimp
- pig hybridization, the "direction of the cross" would likely have been a male boar or pig (Sus scrofa) with a female chimp (Pan troglodytes), and the offspring would have been nurtured by a chimp mother among chimpanzees (shades of Tarzan!). The physical evidence for this is convincing, as you can discover for yourself with a trip over to macroevolution.net.
When I asked McCarthy if he could give a date estimate for the hybridization event, he said that there are a couple broad possibilities: (1) It might be that hybridization between pigs and apes produced the earliest hominids millions of years ago and that subsequent
mating within this hybrid swarm eventually led to the various hominid types and to modern humans; (2) separate crosses between pigs and apes could have produced separate hominids (and there's even a creepy possibility that hybridization might even still be occurring in regions where Sus and Pan still seem to come into contact, like Southern Sudan).
This latter possibility may not sound so far-fetched after you read the riveting details suggesting that the origin of the gorilla may be best explained by hybridization with the equally massive forest hog. This hog is found within the same habitat as the gorilla, and shares many uncommon physical features and habits. Furthermore, well-known hybridization effects can explain many of the fertility issues and other
peculiarities of gorilla physiology.
It is not yet clear if or when genetic data might support, or refute, our hybrid
origins. The list of anatomical specializations we may have gained from
porcine philandering is too long to detail here. Suffice it to say, similarities in the face, skin and organ microstructure alone are hard to explain away. A short list of differential features, for example, would include, multipyramidal kidney structure, presence of dermal melanocytes, melanoma, absence of a primate baculum (penis bone), surface lipid and carbohydrate composition of cell membranes, vocal cord
structure, laryngeal sacs, diverticuli of the fetal stomach, intestinal
"valves of Kerkring," heart chamber symmetry, skin and cranial vasculature and method of cooling, and tooth structure. Other features occasionally seen in humans, like bicornuate uteruses and supernumerary nipples, would also be difficult to incorporate into a purely primate tree.
McCarthy has done extensive research into the broader issues, and shortcomings, of our currently incomplete theory of evolution. As the increasing apparent, magnificent, speed with which morphological change can occur continues to present itself for us to comprehend, the standard
theory of random mutation followed by slow environmental selection, seems to stall. In my own opinion, female choice undoubtedly provides much of the functional "speed-up" we observe, but other mechanisms of mutation, or pathways for acquired characteristics to be fed back to the
gonads (through retroviral transfer?), now need to be considered anew. The role of hybridization in driving morphological change, as McCarthy has observed time and time again, particularly in his studies of avian species (Oxford University Press, 2006), may be the most powerful mechanism of all.
Follow-up story: Human hybrids: a closer look at the theory and evidence
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