Stunning image of the sun's North Pole - why giant holes form on the solar surface !

List members , just take a look at the biggest RABBIT HOLE of our Solar System - the North Polar Opening of our HOLLOW Sun , Aha !!

Stunning image of the sun's North Pole could finally solve the mystery of why giant holes form on the solar surface

  • Stunning images could revolutionize our knowledge of the solar surface
  • Artificial image one of the best images yet of the mysterious region
  • Researchers were forced to piece together pictures of the Sun’s polar regions

Scientists have revealed an unprecedented view of the sun's North Pole.

The stunning images could revolutionize our knowledge of the solar surface, and give new insights into how storms that batter Earth with magnetic particles form.

Researchers say the artificial image of the solar north pole is one of the best images yet of the mysterious region.

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The sun's North Pole: The line across the middle is created due to small changes in the solar atmosphere that occurred over the timeframe of creating this image. This image also shows a bright bulge on the upper-right side of the Sun; this is created by a low-latitude coronal hole rotating around the solar disc. The polar coronal hole region, which can be seen as the dark patch in the centre of the solar disc, is a source of fast solar wind. It is seen here to contain a subtle network of light and dark structures, which may cause variations in solar wind speed.

'We’ve sent numerous missions into space to study the Sun, however, most of these spacecraft have focused mainly on the equatorial regions of the Sun,' the European Space Agency said.

This lack of imaging data meant researchers were forced to piece together pictures of the Sun’s polar regions.

The image extrapolates low-latitude Proba-2 observations of the Sun to reconstruct a view of the star’s pole.

The above image includes off-limb structures, whereas this one has had this removed.

The above image includes off-limb structures, whereas this one has had this removed.

While the poles cannot be seen directly, when spacecraft observe the solar atmosphere they gather data on everything along their line of sight, also viewing the atmosphere extending around the disc of the Sun (the apparent glow around the main disc of the Sun, which also extends over the poles).

'Scientists can use this to infer the appearance of the polar regions,' ESA said.

In order to estimate the properties of the solar atmosphere over the poles, researchers continuously imaged the main disc of the Sun and take small slivers of data from the outer and upper regions of the star as it rotates, compensating for the fact that the Sun does not rotate at constant speeds at all latitudes.

Over time, these small arrays of data can be combined to approximate a view of the pole, as shown in this view.

Researchers say the data could reveal many of the sun's secrets.

THE PROBES SENT TO THE SUN

Past and present solar explorers include ESA’s Proba-2 (PRoject for OnBoard Autonomy 2) and SOHO (SOlar Heliospheric Observatory) probes, NASA’s SDO and STEREOmissions (the Solar Dynamics Observatory and Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory, respectively), and the joint NASA/ESA Ulysses mission.

However, most of these spacecraft have focused mainly on the equatorial regions of the Sun, with the notable exception of Ulysses – this probe observed our star at a wide range of latitudes for nearly two decades, until the mission came to an end in 2009.

Despite Ulysses’ insights, this focus on low solar latitudes has left the Sun’s poles relatively unexplored.

The images above show the Sun in four different wavelengths (which roughly show the sun in different temperatures)

'The most obvious area of research revolves around study of the polar coronal holes, and especially their boundaries, in particular studying the dynamics of a process known as interchange reconnection occurring between open (coronal hole region) and closed magnetic flux (quiet sun) at the boundaries,' wrote Matthew West.

'On longer time-scales we can also further study the formation of the polar coronal holes.'

Wave propagation in the polar regions, and the heating processes on the sun are also set to be studied.

ESA’s Solar Orbiter aims to plug this knowledge gap when it launches in 2020.

This mission will study the Sun in detail from latitudes high enough to explore its polar regions, also revealing how its magnetic field and particle emissions impact its cosmic environment – including the area of space that we call home.

Large Coronal Hole Near the Sun’s North Pole

July 19, 2013

The European Space Agency/NASA Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, or SOHO, captured this image of a gigantic coronal hole hovering over the sun’s north pole on July 18, 2013, at 9:06 a.m. EDT.

Image Credit:

ESA&NASA/SOHO

> View larger

The European Space Agency/NASA Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, or SOHO, captured this image of a gigantic coronal hole hovering over the sun’s north pole on July 18, 2013, at 9:06 a.m. EDT. Coronal holes are dark, low density regions of the sun’s outermost atmosphere, the corona. They contain little solar material, have lower temperatures, and therefore, appear much darker than their surroundings.

Coronal holes are a typical feature on the sun, though they appear at different places and with more frequency at different times of the sun’s activity cycle. The activity cycle is currently ramping up toward what is known as solar maximum, currently predicted for late 2013. During this portion of the cycle, the number of coronal holes decreases. During solar max, the magnetic fields on the sun reverse and new coronal holes appear near the poles with the opposite magnetic alignment. The coronal holes then increase in size and number, extending further from the poles as the sun moves toward solar minimum again. At such times, coronal holes have appeared that are even larger than this one.

The holes are important to our understanding of space weather, as they are the source of a high-speed wind of solar particles that streams off the sun some three times faster than the slower wind elsewhere. While it’s unclear what causes coronal holes, they correlate to areas on the sun where magnetic fields soar up and away, failing to loop back down to the surface, as they do elsewhere .

Regards

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It would be interesting to now correlate the Polar Coronal holes of the Sun with the Solar cycles , especially the currently ongoing Grand Solar minimum (GSM) .

There was actually a research paper once published on this :-

https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1086/306675/fulltext/

Regards

List members , there is a direct correlation between such coronal holes on the sun and geomagnetic storms that hit the Earth from time to time...one such storm struck the earth recently - in Sept. end . There can be a number of effects on Earth whenever such an electromagnetic energy transfer occurs .

Regards

Sidhartha,

Stupendous images of the orifice. I never saw it so obviously.

I feel like a dog howling at The Moon.

Cheers!

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You might like keeping track of these as well:

As well as the Twitter account: https://twitter.com/flareaware

The service offers alerts on your mobile phone so that you're aware of anything coming and going with the Sun.

Thanks @deandddd , @Soretna , there could not have been a clearer picture of the Sun's hollowness...now this fact simply cannot be disputed - especially after seeing such an obvious image :))

Regards

Eric Dollard has repeatedly explained that the Sun is hollow...

Sidhartha,

And you found it!

#: ^ )

Cheers!

Sure @deandddd , these recent images prove beyond any reasonable doubt , that the Sun has a Hollow interior - and also help nullify the scepticism of naysayers . I am sure Eric Dollard would be thrilled to see this (if he hasn't already) !

Moreover , if it is accepted that the Sun is hollow , then it becomes that much easier to prove that all planets too are Hollow .

On another note , Eric Dollard subscribes to the Electric Universe theory and he would be inclined to believe that powerful geomagnetic storms from the Sun that hit the Earth , could cause Hurricanes/Cyclones or even trigger Earthquakes/Volcanic eruptions .

Regards

List members , in line with the postulates of Electric Universe theory which cites electromagnetism as the root cause of earthquakes and volcanoes , here is what a Japanese space probe had found about big holes on our Sun and a powerful geomagnetic storm emanating from the sun around Feb. 2011...could we have even asked for a better proof than this of the Sun's hollowness ? Now remember what happened just 1 month after that , in March 2011 - the largest Earthquake and Tsunami in recent human history , that struck the Japanese coastline...hmm

Photo Shows Big Holes in the Sun

By Space.com Staff February 11, 2011

On Feb. 1, 2011, the Hinode satellite captured this breathtaking image of a coronal hole, seen in the top center of the image. A second, polar coronal hole can also be seen at the bottom of the image.

On Feb. 1, 2011, the Hinode satellite captured this breathtaking image of a coronal hole, seen in the top center of the image. A second, polar coronal hole can also be seen at the bottom of the image. (Image credit: Hinode/XRT)

A Japanese spacecraft has spotted two huge holes in the sun – gateways for solar material and gas to spill out into space.

Scientists call the sun holes "coronal holes." They are gaps in the sun's magnetic field which make a hole through the star's super-hot outer atmosphere – the corona – allowing gas to escape, according to a NASA description.

Japan's Hinode sun-watching satellite photographed the sun's two coronal holes on Feb. 1. In the image, one coronal hole appears near the top center of the sun while another one – a polar coronal hole – is visible near the bottom of the view.

The holes appear darker than other parts of the sun, but there's a reason for that.

"The holes are relatively cool in temperature as compared to the active regions nearby – such as the bright region on the lower left portion of the solar disk – the cooler temperature is one of the reasons for the darker appearance," NASA officials said in a statement.

Japan's Hinode solar observatory has been studying the sun since the spacecraft's launch in 2006. The satellite is designed to study the sun's magnetic field to help scientists better understand how its energy propagates through different layers of the sun's atmosphere.

The mission is a collaborative effort between the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Japan's National Astronomical Observatory, NASA, and the space agencies of Norway, the United Kingdom and the European Space Agency.

Regards

Yeah,

A real big opening that opens gradually.

Dean

There was a massive Solar flare that was ejected due to a CME (coronal mass ejection) from the Sun at that time...

Regards

It wasn't much an event to be honest. The news was going nuts on a non-event. I'm comparing this contextually with what was rather normal several years ago during solar max.

FlareAware sent out two alerts last night and it only got up to a G2 geomagnetic storm. The more important ramifications were health implications since geomagnetic storms cause heart attacks, strokes, insomnia, depression, suicide, etc. I know several people that had problems last night from that and had insomnia.

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@Soretna , actually that geomagnetic storm was significant enough for NASA to release the following news flash in Feb. 2011 . Also , there could be a strong correlation between powerful geomagnetic storms and earthquakes/volcanic eruptions on Earth . Please note the context that geomagnetic storms transfer their energy to Earth via it's ionosphere through EFT (electromagnetic flux transfer) events . Conversely , earthquakes on earth can disturb the ionosphere as well , as the below article explains :-

Huge solar flare jams radio, satellite signals: NASA

The sun has unleashed its strongest flare in four years, NASA said

A NASA image of an erupting solar flare (R). The strongest solar flare in four years disrupted radio communications in southern China, according to the China Meteorological Administration.

A powerful solar eruption that triggered a huge geomagnetic storm has disturbed radio communications and could disrupt electrical power grids, radio and satellite communication in the next days, NASA said.

A strong wave of charged plasma particles emanating from the Jupiter-sized sun spot, the most powerful seen in four years, has already disrupted radio communication in southern China.

The Class X flash -- the largest such category -- erupted at 0156 GMT Tuesday, according to the US space agency.

"X-class flares are the most powerful of all solar events that can trigger radio blackouts and long-lasting radiation storms," disturbing telecommunications and electric grids, NASA said Wednesday.

Geomagnetic storms usually last 24 to 48 hours -- but some could last for many days, read a statement from the US National Weather Service.

"Ground to air, ship to shore, shortwave broadcast and amateur radio are vulnerable to disruption during geomagnetic storms. Navigation systems like GPS can also be adversely affected."

NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory said it saw a large coronal mass ejection (CME) associated with the flash blasting toward Earth at about 560 miles per second (900 kilometers per second).

The flare spread from Active Region 1158 in the sun's southern hemisphere, which had so far lagged behind the northern hemisphere in flash activity. It followed several smaller flares in recent days.

"The calm before the storm," read a statement on the US National Weather Service Space Weather Prediction Service.

"Three CMEs are enroute, all a part of the Radio Blackout events on February 13, 14, and 15 (UTC). The last of the three seems to be the fastest and may catch both of the forerunners about mid to late ... February 17."

The China Meteorological Administration reported that the solar flare caused "sudden ionospheric disturbances" in the atmosphere above China and jammed shortwave radio communications in the southern part of the country.

The CMA warned there was a high probability that large solar flares would appear over the next three days, the official Xinhua news agency reported.

The British Geological Survey (BGS) said meanwhile that the solar storm would result in spectacular Northern Lights displays starting Thursday.

One coronal mass ejection reached Earth on February 14, "sparking Valentine's Day displays of the Northern Lights (aurora borealis) further south than usual."

"Two CMEs are expected to arrive in the next 24-48 hours and further... displays are possible some time over the next two nights if skies are clear," it said.

The office published geomagnetic records dating back to the Victorian era which it hopes will help in planning for future storms.

"Life increasingly depends on technologies that didn't exist when the magnetic recordings began," said Alan Thomson, BGS head of geomagnetism.

"Studying the records will tell us what we have to plan and prepare for to make sure systems can resist solar storms," he said.

A 2009 report by a panel of scientists assembled by NASA said that a sustained and powerful solar flare outbreak could overwhelm high-voltage transformers with electrical currents and short-circuit energy grids.

The report, titled "Severe Space Weather Events -- Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts" warned that such a catastrophic event could cost the United States alone up to two trillion dollars in repairs in the first year -- and it could take up to 10 years to fully recover.

**You may also find the below extract from a research article relevant :-

The UV aurora and ionospheric flows during flux
transfer events

Institute of Space Science, Bucharest, Romania
*Now at: Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX, UK
Received: 24 July 2000 – Revised: 11 December 2000 – Accepted: 12 December 2000
Abstract. Far Ultra Violet (FUV) signatures in the polar
ionosphere during a period of magnetopause reconnection
are compared with ionospheric flows measured in the cusp
‘throat’ and dusk cell by the CUTLASS Hankasalmi HF radar.
Regions of peak FUV emission in the 130.4 nm and 135.6 nm
range, observed by the Polar spacecraft’s VIS Earth Camera, consistently lie at the turning point of the flows from the
dusk cell, poleward into the throat, and at the equatorward
edge of the region of high and varied radar spectral-width associated with the cusp. The Equator-S spacecraft was near
the magnetopause at the time of the ionospheric observations
and geomagnetically conjugate with the region of ionosphere
observed by the radar. Flux transfer events (FTEs), suggestive of bursty reconnection between the IMF and geomagnetic fields, were observed by Equator-S prior to and during the periods of high FUV emission. Enhanced poleward
ionospheric flow velocities in the polar cusp region, previously shown to be associated with bursty reconnection, consistently lie poleward of the enhanced FUV optical feature.
The enhanced optical feature is consistent with the expected
position of the largest upward region 1 field-aligned current,
associated with electron precipitation, on the dusk edge of
the merging gap. The optical feature moves duskward and
equatorward during the course of the reconnection sequence,
consistent with expansion of the merging line and the polar
cap with newly added open magnetic flux by the FTEs. The
DMSP F14 spacecraft passed through the enhanced FUV region and measured strong, structured electron precipitation
far greater than in the adjacent regions.
Key words. Magnetospheric physics (current systems; magCorrespondence to: T. K. Yeoman
([email protected])
netopause, cusp and boundary layers; magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions)
1 Introduction
The effect of transient dayside reconnection of the interplanetary and geomagnetic fields on the polar ionosphere has
been a prominent theme in magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling since its first observation by Elphic et al. (1990) (see
e.g. Kan et al., 1996; Provan et al., 1998; Milan et al., 2000).
Cowley et al. (1991) presented in detail the expected effects on ionospheric convection of both steady and transient
dayside reconnection. Cowley and Lockwood (1992) refined
predictions of the excitation and decay of ionospheric flows
induced by day- and nightside reconnection including the
azimuthal effects of IMF By . Ultimately, such ionospheric
flows are driven by field-aligned-currents (FACs) (e.g. Iijima
and Potemra, 1978) which transmit energy and stress from
the magnetosheath to the polar ionosphere (e.g. Glassmeier
and Stellmacher, 1996; Wright, 1996; Cowley, 2000).
HF radars have observed high velocity flow channels in
the cusp ionosphere, termed flow channel events (FCEs), that
were assumed to be the response to transient reconnection
(Pinnock et al. 1993, 1995; Rodger and Pinnock 1997). Quasi-periodic sequences of such events have also been termed
pulsed ionospheric flows (PIFs), and the spatial extent of
these events, their flow orientation, MLT occurrence, dependence on IMF orientation and repetition frequencies have
been extensively examined

Regards

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