Extremely mysterious Atmospheric Superrotation on Venus , Titan and Elsewhere

List members , the "slow coach" rotation speeds of Venus (243 earth days) and Titan (15.9 earth days) , makes the "super-rotation" of their atmospheres extremely mysterious . This is one of the BIGGEST unsolved mysteries of planetary science .

Just consider this - the atmosphere of Venus rotates an incredible 60 times as fast as Earth's atmosphere , when it's speed of rotation is 243 times LESS than Earth !! Where is the energy coming from , to propel the atmosphere of Venus to such amazing speeds , an order of magnitude faster than the rotation of Venus's surface itself ??

As usual , mainstream science resorted to guesswork and speculated that Venus is so close to the Sun , that the Sun's heat is "turbocharging" the atmosphere of Venus to behave in such a weird manner...oh yeah ???? Then how will they explain the super-rotation of the FRIGID Titan's atmosphere - please bear in mind , Titan is a moon of Saturn and very , very far away from the heat of our Sun :))

I think this extraordinary source of "EXTRA" energy fuelling the atmospheric super-rotation of Venus and Titan is originating from their respective inner Suns , via their respective Polar openings....the big question is - why doesn't this happen on all the worlds ? Well , the reason could be that for some reason , the outer atmosphere of Venus and Titan is receiving lot more energy from the interior of those worlds , than is happening on other worlds - such as Earth or Mars .

Superrotation on Venus, on Titan, and Elsewhere

Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences


The superrotation of the atmospheres of Venus and Titan has puzzled dynamicists for many years and seems to put these planets in a very different dynamical regime from most other planets. In this review, we consider how to define superrotation objectively and explore the constraints that determine its occurrence. Atmospheric superrotation also occurs elsewhere in the Solar System and beyond, and we compare Venus and Titan with Earth and other planets for which wind estimates are available. The extreme superrotation on Venus and Titan poses some difficult challenges for numerical models of atmospheric circulation, much more difficult than for more rapidly rotating planets such as Earth or Mars. We consider mechanisms for generating and maintaining a superrotating state, all of which involve a global meridional overturning circulation. The role of nonaxisymmetric eddies is crucial, however, but the detailed mechanisms may differ between Venus, Titan, and other planets.


List members , we've already discussed the "wild Polar Vortexes" in the Venusian atmosphere , as also the super-rotation of the atmosphere of Venus (both phenomena maybe linked to the energy of the inner Sun , emitted via the Polar openings) , with respect to Venus itself .

Now there are absolutely tantalising signs of life - again from high up in the atmosphere of Venus . Wouldn't it be just incredible to find life on this most "HELLISH" of planets ?? How cool is that ??!!

Dark higher-altitude clouds obscure the brighter mid-altitude clouds in this image of Venus taken by an infrared camera on board Japan's Akatsuki Venus Climate Orbiter. Phospine gas detected in the temperate mid-altitude clouds is teasing scientists with a possible signature for life.


Possible sign of life on Venus stirs up heated debate

“Something weird is happening” in the clouds of the planet next door—but some experts are raising doubts about the quality of the data.

8 Minute Read

By Nadia Drake

PUBLISHED September 14, 2020

Something deadly might be wafting through the clouds shrouding Venus—a smelly, flammable gas called phosphine that annihilates life-forms reliant on oxygen for survival. Ironically, though, the scientists who today announced sightings of this noxious gas in the Venusian atmosphere say it could be tantalizing—if controversial—evidence of life on the planet next door.

As far as we know, on rocky planets such as Venus and Earth, phosphine can only be made by life—whether human or microbe. Used as a chemical weapon during World War I, phosphine is still manufactured as an agricultural fumigant, is used in the semiconductor industry, and is a nasty byproduct of meth labs. But phosphine is also made naturally by some species of anaerobic bacteria—organisms that live in the oxygen-starved environments of landfills, marshlands, and even animal guts.

Earlier this year, researchers surmised that finding the chemical on other terrestrial planets could indicate the presence of alien metabolisms, and they suggested aiming the sharpest telescopes of the future at faraway exoplanets to probe their atmospheres for signs of the gas.

Now, we may have found signs of phosphine on the planet next door, astronomers report in the journal Nature Astronomy .

“I immediately freaked out, of course. I presumed it was a mistake, but I very much wanted it to not be a mistake,” says study co-author Clara Sousa-Silva, a postdoctoral researcher at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) who initially identified phosphine as a potential biosignature.

Put simply, phosphine shouldn’t be in the Venusian atmosphere. It’s extremely hard to make, and the chemistry in the clouds should destroy the molecule before it can accumulate to the observed amounts. But it’s too early to conclude that life exists beyond Earth’s shores. Scientists caution that the detection itself needs to be verified, as the phosphine fingerprint described in the study could be a false signal introduced by the telescopes or by data processing.

“It’s tremendously exciting, and we have a sort of obligatory response of first questioning whether the result is real,” says David Grinspoon of the Planetary Science Institute. “When somebody comes up with an extraordinary observation that hasn’t been made before, you wonder if they could have done something wrong.”

But if phosphine really is floating through the Venusian cloud deck, its presence suggests one of two intriguing possibilities: that alien life-forms are deftly linking together phosphorus and hydrogen atoms, or that some completely unanticipated chemistry is crafting phosphine in the absence of life.

Life on a “blasted hellhole”

Venus, the second world from the sun, has long been considered Earth’s twin. It’s about the same size as our home planet, with similar gravity and composition. For centuries, hopeful humans thought its surface might be covered in oceans, lush vegetation, and verdant ecosystems, providing a second oasis for life in the solar system.

Then reality intruded.

Early science observations of the planet next door revealed that it is a menace of a world that could kill Earthlings in multiple ways. Its surface can reach a sweltering 900 degrees Fahrenheit. Tucked beneath as many as 65 miles of cloud and haze, those roasted rocks are smothered by a bone-crushing amount of pressure, more than 90 times what’s felt on Earth’s surface. Plus, the planet’s atmosphere is primarily suffocating carbon dioxide populated by sulfuric acid clouds.

Even so, scientists have considered the possibility that life might exist in the Venusian cloud deck for nearly 60 years, perhaps thriving where conditions are a bit friendlier.

“While the surface conditions of Venus make the hypothesis of life there implausible, the clouds of Venus are a different story altogether,” Carl Sagan and Harold Morowitz wrote in the journal Nature back in 1967.

Despite the acid, the clouds carry the basic ingredients for life as we know it: sunlight, water, and organic molecules. And near the middle of the cloud layer, temperatures and pressures are rather Earthlike. “It’s shirt-sleeve weather, with all these tasty things to eat,” says Martha Gilmore, a Wesleyan University planetary scientist and leader of a proposed mission to Venus, referring to molecules in the planet’s air that microbes could metabolize.

Early observations of the planet revealed that parts of its atmosphere absorb more ultraviolet light than expected, an anomaly [that scientists hypothesized could be the work of aerial microbes.](https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/ast.2017.1783#:~:text=In%20his%20book%20“Venus%20Revealed,absorption%20of%20solar%20energy%20by%20() While the phenomenon is more likely due to the presence of sulfur-containing compounds, a handful of scientists have since elaborated on the possibility of airborne Venusians, laying out scenarios in which microbes might metabolize sulfur compounds, stay afloat among the ever-present clouds, and even develop life cycles enabled by periods of dormancy at varying altitudes.

“When I first started talking about it, there was a lot of resistance, mostly because it’s such a harshly acidic environment,” says Grinspoon, who has pushed the idea of cloud-borne life on Venus since the mid-1990s.

Venus 101 Named after the ancient Roman goddess of beauty, Venus is known for its exceptional brightness. Find out about the volcanoes that dot Venus's surface, the storms that rage in its atmosphere, and the surprising feature that makes Venus outshine every planet or star in the night sky.

But everything we’ve learned about life on Earth suggests that it will move into every available nook and cranny. Here, we find microbes thriving in hostile, corrosive environments such as hot springs and volcanic fields. We also know that microbes regularly hitch a ride on cloud particles, and scientists have found organisms flying more than six miles above the Caribbean. Clouds are ephemeral on Earth, so it’s unlikely that they support permanent ecosystems, but on Venus, cloudy days are in the forecast for millions or even billions of years.

“On Venus, that puddle never dries up,” Grinspoon says. “The clouds are continuous and thick and globe-spanning.”

Although Venus is a roasting world today, observations suggest that it once had a liquid water ocean. For most of its history, Venus could have been as habitable as Earth—until sometime in the last billion years, when ballooning greenhouse gases transformed the planet from an oasis into a death trap. Perhaps, as the scorched surface became less hospitable, life-forms migrated into the clouds to avoid certain extinction.

Any life there now is “much more likely to be a relic of a more dominating early biosphere,” says Penelope Boston, a NASA astrobiologist who specializes in studying microbes in weird places on Earth. She’s skeptical, though. “I think it’s a blasted hellhole now, so how much of that ancient signal could have held up?”

The deadly gas of life

In June 2017, Cardiff University’s Jane Greaves and colleagues took a look at Venus using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, which scans the sky in radio wavelengths from its perch atop Mauna Kea in Hawaii. They were looking for rare gases or molecules that might be biological in origin. Among the signatures they spotted was that of phosphine gas, a pyramidal molecule comprising three hydrogen atoms joined to a single phosphorus atom.

Not long after, Greaves got in touch with Sousa-Silva, who spent her years in graduate school working out whether phosphine could be a viable extraterrestrial biosignature. She had concluded that phosphine could be one of life’s beacons, even though paradoxically, it’s lethal to everything on Earth that requires oxygen to survive.

“I was really fascinated by the macabre nature of phosphine on Earth,” she says. “It’s a killing machine ... and almost a romantic biosignature because it was a sign of death.”

In 2019, Greaves, Sousa-Silva, and their colleagues followed up on the initial phosphine observation using ALMA, an array of telescopes on a high Chilean plateau. More sensitive than the Hawaii-based telescope, ALMA also observes the sky at radio frequencies, and it can detect the energy emitted and absorbed by any phosphine molecules spinning in the Venusian atmosphere.

Again, the team detected phosphine. This time, scientists could narrow down the molecule’s signal to equatorial latitudes and an altitude between 32 and 37 miles, where temperatures and pressures aren’t too harsh for life as we know it. Based on the signal’s strength, the team calculated that phosphine’s abundance is roughly 20 parts per billion, or at least a thousand times more than we find on Earth.

Venus is basically still an alien planet. There are a lot of things we don’t understand.

Dirk Schulze-Makuch, Technical University Berlin

In the outer solar system, phosphine is made deep in the interiors of Jupiter and Saturn. Near the giant planets’ cores, the temperatures and pressures are extreme enough to craft the molecule, which then rises through the atmosphere. But on rocky planets, where conditions are significantly less extreme, there’s no known way to make phosphine in the absence of life—it’s just too energetically demanding. In other words, if the observation of phosphine on Venus is right, something must be continually replenishing the molecule in the planet’s atmosphere.

“Life is the only thing that will put energy into making molecules,” Sousa-Silva says. “Otherwise, in the universe, chemistry only happens when it’s energetically favorable.”

Astrobiologist Dirk Schulze-Makuch of Technical University Berlin, who has considered cloud-based Venusian life, agrees a biological explanation for the phosphine is possible, but he thinks other unknown geologic or light-induced chemical reactions might yet account for the signal. “Venus is basically still an alien planet,” he says. “There are a lot of things we don’t understand.”

The study team set out to determine whether phosphine could be made on Venus in the absence of biology. Among the scenarios the scientists investigated were volcanic outgassing, intense lightning strikes, tectonic plates rubbing together, bismuth rain, and cosmic dust. Based on the team’s calculations, none of those events could produce the molecule in such abundance.

“Whether it’s life or not, it has to be a really exotic mechanism,” Sousa-Silva says. “Something weird is happening.”

Getting back to Venus

Still, ALMA observatory scientist John Carpenter is skeptical that the phosphine observations themselves are real. The signal is faint, and the team needed to perform an extensive amount of processing to pull it from the data returned by the telescopes. That processing, he says, may have returned an artificial signal at the same frequency as phosphine. He also notes that the standard for remote molecular identification involves detecting multiple fingerprints for the same molecule, which show up at different frequencies on the electromagnetic spectrum. That’s something that the team has not yet done with phosphine.

“They took the right steps to verify the signal, but I’m still not convinced that this is real,” Carpenter says. “If it’s real, it’s a very cool result, but it needs follow-up to make it really convincing.”

Sousa-Silva agrees that the team needs to confirm the phosphine detection by finding additional fingerprints at other wavelengths. She and her colleagues had planned such observations using the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, a plane-mounted telescope, and with NASA’s Infrared Telescope Facility in Hawaii. But COVID-19 got in the way, and the team’s attempts have been put on hold.

“It’s disappointing that we don’t have this proof,” Sousa-Silva says.

Even so, Sanjay Limaye, a planetary scientist at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, says the discovery is exciting enough to continue searching, and preferably from a much closer vantage point. “It is intriguing that it may point to something strange going on in the atmosphere of Venus, but is it exotic chemistry, or is it life?” he says. “We need to go explore and find out.”

The tentative detection of phosphine is likely to fuel calls for a return to Venus—a trip that some say is long overdue, given that the last time NASA sent a probe to the planet was in 1989. Schulze-Makuch says it’s completely within the realm of possibility to do an atmospheric sample-return mission, sending a spacecraft to swoop through the clouds and gather gas and particles to bring back to Earth.

Several proposed missions are moving through review, including an elaborate, multi-spacecraft concept led by Gilmore of Wesleyan University, which will be evaluated by the planetary science community as it sets its priorities for the next decade of solar system exploration. Gilmore’s concept includes several orbiters and a balloon that would closely study the Venusian atmosphere and look for signs of life.

On the more immediate horizon, a smaller mission to study the deep atmosphere of Venus, named DAVINCI+, is one of the four finalists in NASA’s Discovery program competition. The next mission selection is scheduled to take place in 2021.

“Venus is such a complex, amazing system, and we don’t understand it. And it’s another Earth. It probably had an ocean for billions of years, and it’s right there. It’s just a matter of going,” Gilmore says. “We have the technology right now to go into the atmosphere of Venus. It can be done.”


@sidharthabahadur have you read Jan Lamprecht's, "Hollow Planets: A Feasibility Study of Possible Hollow Worlds" yet? I believe you'd be thoroughly appreciative of this topic's coverage therein.

@Soretna , I don't know whether Jan Lamprecht believes this or not , but I do - Climate on any planet's outer surface (including our Earth's case) , is an interplay between the External Sun and the Inner Sun (via Polar openings) .

Since the External Sun undergoes Solar cycles , correspondingly the Inner Suns may also be undergoing their own cycles , as a balancing act to the external Sun's Solar cycles . I mean , when the external Sun is in the lower part of it's Solar cycle , the Inner Sun probably starts emitting more energy and becomes more "active" and vice-versa . This probably helps stabilise climate on a planet's outer and inner surfaces - but only to a certain extent .

This balancing mechanism is obviously NOT adequate to prevent periodical ice ages on the surface , for example .

**For the planets closer to the Sun , the external Sun plays the dominating role for climate on their surfaces .

***But for planets and moons that are extremely far away from the external Sun , it is their Inner Sun which plays the dominant role . Had this not been the case , the GASEOUS atmospheres of FRIGID Uranus and Neptune would be FROZEN ABSOLUTELY ROCK SOLID , not be full of roaring storms , CONSTANTLY hurtling about at SUPERSONIC speeds !!!! :))


@sidharthabahadur what I'm saying is that his coverage of this topic would be very interesting to you since it is an observed and documented phenomena that he himself covers. He ties this into hollow planet theory as supporting evidence. You really should read that book ASAP.


Venus seems to have an opening in the side at which point atmospheric currents seem to converge. If there is attraction and the currents are getting sucked into the opening, that could be an element in the atmospheric acceleration, superrotation, of other surface currents. Jan Lamprecht, in his book Hollow Planets, discusses this "Y feature" on Pages 172, 226 - 231, and on Page 237.


@deandddd , @Soretna , so I am copy pasting that section of Jan Lamprecht's work , which I found most relevant (for carrying forward our discussions on this subject) - goes right to the ROOT of Hollow Planet theory , especially the section on the "swelling atmosphere" and the "breathing in and out" action of the INTER-CONNECTED atmospheres of Hollow Earth and the atmosphere over Earth's outer surface . All the climate models are therefore flawed , since they assume a solid planet , with no Polar openings . No wonder they keep getting "nasty surprises" whenever FREAK weather strikes :-

**Before reading this section , I wish to highlight a very tantalising comment by some explorers , about the clear presence of Sulphuric acid droplets high up in the air above Alaska and till much further North (despite the absence of ANY volcano in the Arctic)...now this is exactly what has been noticed in the Polar region of Venus - the presence of Sulphuric acid droplets , high up in the atmosphere , so close to the Poles is a veritable "calling card" , a "smoking gun" clue to the existence of the Polar opening - an EXTREMELY THRILLING sign indeed for Hollow Planet explorers like us :))


In the early 1970s Edward N. Lorenz, a meteorologist from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, engaged in an interesting study in a field now known as “Chaos theory”. Lorenz posed the question:
Can the flap of a butterfly’s wing over Brazil spawn a tornado over Texas?
The butterfly effect, as it has come to be called, has been studied mathematically and it poses major problems for weather prediction. It states that very small changes in the starting conditions of a model will result in very big changes later. Effectively, it places a limit on the number of days into the future one can predict the weather. Scientists now believe that we will never be able to predict the weather more than a few weeks into the future.

I wondered whether indeed Chaos theory is the only valid answer to the weather prediction problem. What if there’s something else at work too, bedeviling meteorologists? What if there is a tunnel connecting the inner and outer Earth? And what if air were to flow into and out of the inner cavity? Would that not mess up all those finely honed calculations done on those super-computers? It is often stated by scientists that the world’s weather is actually manufactured at the South Pole. What if a Polar Hole exists somewhere near the South Pole which is indeed responsible for some of this?

Super-Rotation of the Upper Atmosphere

In 1974 in “Nature” David Hughes wrote:
“Observations of small changes in the orbital inclinations of artificial satellites have shown that the Earth’s upper atmosphere (at altitudes of 150 – 400 km) is rotating about 20 – 30% faster than the Earth itself. This phenomenon has become known as super-rotation....”
Hughes went on to state that the super-rotation of the Earth affected the average satellite’s orbit by about 0.l degree during its life time. Since the effect is so small, it is difficult to monitor the short term behavior of the super-rotating atmosphere. Remember that no one knows why the Venusian atmosphere super-rotates. Hughes theorized about some of the possible causes of super- rotation and ended up discounting them all. Hughes concludes:
“It seems therefore that the cause of super-rotation still remains a mystery and that the Earth’s spinning upper atmosphere is still the happy hunting ground for new theories.”
The super-rotation of the Earth’s atmosphere is nowhere near as great as the effect which occurs on Venus. If the Venusian super-rotation can be explained by way of a Hollow Planet with very large Polar Holes, I wonder if the same is not true for the Earth? The lesser super-rotation on the Earth suggests to me that the Polar Holes here on Earth may be smaller. The principle of the ‘pumping-action’ which I suggested for Venus might apply here on Earth. The faster rotation of the Earth may also result in an atmosphere which has far more energy and which overrides a large part of the effect of the super-rotation. Let me point out too that the jet stream circles the Earth’s polar regions. The jet stream is a very powerful ‘river’ of air which also super-rotates about the Earth. Could it be that the jet stream derives some of its power from air flowing into and out of a Hollow Earth?

The Aurora and Weather

Current auroral theory contends that the aurora is only caused by charged particles from the Sun. These particles strike the atmosphere so high up – where it is almost a vacuum – that there is no possible way that these particles can influence the weather. I wondered whether perhaps there could be a connection between a Hollow Earth, the aurora and the weather. In a solid Earth scenario, the Earth’s core lies thousands of miles away, beneath billions of tons of rock. There is no direct link between the Earth’s core and the outer surface. However, in a Hollow Planet scenario, one where a planet has Polar Holes, there is indeed a direct link between the ‘core’ (Inner Sun) and the outer atmosphere. Hence a link between the magnetic field and the weather seems to be a rather natural expectation – whereas on a solid Earth it is a virtual impossibility.

In the regions where the aurora is seen there is often a belief among the inhabitants of some link

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between the aurora and the weather. Generally, scientists mock this idea because it flies in the face of auroral theory. However, there does exist some evidence of a weak, yet physical link between the aurora and the weather. The aurora is generally accepted as being a high-level phenomenon which occurs in a virtual vacuum. I have mentioned the possible existence of low-level auroras and auroral sound which suggests other factors at work, like electricity for example. This electricity might be generated inside the Earth. The weather connection is even more important since one needs to somehow link the Earth’s core with the lower atmosphere here on the outside of the Earth.

The only way I can see this as a viable possibility is if there is a hole in the crust of a Hollow Earth which allows air to flow into and out of the planet. Perhaps a mechanism exists whereby a central Sun could flare up and cause a pressure wave which travels all the way from the inside of the planet to the outside. What if a central Sun were to bend magnetic lines of force on the outside of the Earth, thereby triggering an aurora while at the same time triggering a powerful pressure wave of air which would slowly travel to the outer atmosphere? Thus one would first see an aurora and then some time later (hours or days later), the physical pressure wave might arrive.

  • In 1837 W. B. Clarke wrote that aurora are often followed by wind and rain
  • In 1872 W. F. Denning noted that major auroral displays were followed by a gale within 48 hours
  • In 1873 W. R. Birt noted that thunderstorms and aurorae seem to wax and wane together
  • In 1963 a paper in the “Journal of the British Astronomical Association” noted that records from the great 19th century Arctic expeditions contain many account of ‘clouds’ becoming aurorae after nightfall. These same aurorae then turned into ‘clouds at dawn
    (Several other examples of observations and experiments linking aurora activity with weather are given which have been omitted here.) As can be seen from the above, many observers have noted a possible link between storms, winds and clouds – all possibly related to the aurora. All of these observations are impossible in the light of modern-day auroral theory. Polar Bands It has been observed that cirrus clouds sometimes align themselves along the magnetic meridian (i.e. pointing to the north magnetic pole.) These clouds form long, sharply defined parallel streaks. A ground observer would see these parallel clouds as fanning out from a point on the northern or southern horizon. However, this is merely an illusion for these clouds form perfectly parallel bands. When they are overhead, these bands are evenly spaced. Sometimes these clouds are faintly luminous at night too. Von Humboldt called them ‘polar bands’. (Once again several observations are cited.) The above examples illustrate a number of interlinked facts which have no right to be linked – at least according to our science as it stands now. We find certain types of cloud emanating from north and north-west of England and Europe. Most of the data suggests that from the British Isles the point of origin lies somewhere in the vicinity of Greenland – or beyond. As seen from South Africa, the clouds seem to originate more or less from the South Pole. As seen from the Indian Ocean the suggestion is a line lying towards Alaska, or further on, somewhere in the vicinity of Greenland. From an American point of view one can conclude that these clouds do not seem to coincide with the magnetic meridian. So one has a phenomenon which coincides with the magnetic meridian most, but not all of the time. Also, there is no reasonable scientific explanation for:
    (a) The alignment
    (b) The parallel spacing
    (c) The movement to or from the magnetic/geomagnetic poles
    (d) The manner in which the clouds start and stop abruptly

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Weather From Inside the Earth?

What happens when a scientist discovers a link so strange, so impossible that no one knows what to do with it? That happened to a climatologist by the name of Goesta Wollin. He discovered that freak storms in North America could be predicted with startling accuracy simply by watching the horizontal component of the Earth’s magnetism. The problem with Wollin’s discovery is that it is frankly impossible according to our current understanding of science. When I tried to contact Wollin, I was told that he had passed away in 1995. I did manage to find a Prof. William Ryan of Lamont-Doherty who had worked with him and who knew him well. He told me this about Wollin:

“He co-authored many papers with Maurice Ewing, the founder and first director of Lamont- Doherty, so his reputation was highly respected.”
Wollin’s first amazingly successful freak weather prediction had taken place in January 1986. He had asked Al Travis of the Fredericksburg Magnetic Observatory to report any sudden changes in the magnetic field to him. On 22 January 1986 Travis phone him and told him that the instruments had shown a sudden jump in the horizontal component of the Earth’s geomagnetic field. Wollin then told him that this meant a major snowstorm or flood would occur in 6 days. Wollin then phoned TV stations the region telling them what he expected to happen. The weathermen countered by saying that there was nothing unusual forecast.

Their satellite picture and weather charts showed no indication of any impending storm. They turned down Wollin’s requests to mention his prediction along with theirs. A freak storm struck between 25 – 28 January. 100 mm of rain fell in the coastal region between Boston and Washington, D.C., while 40 inches of show fell inland. Goesta Wollin’s prediction had come true. The storm caused considerable damage to property and several people were killed.

Wollin’s research began back in the early 1970s when he searched for a link between the Earth’s magnetism and temperature. He and David Ericson began to study climatic changes which have occurred since the last ice age 11,000 years ago. (Details of research then given.) Within a few months the three of them (includes William Ryan, a research student) could demonstrate that there was a strong long-term link between the strength of the Earth’s magnetic field and the Earth’s temperature. It was then that Wollin decided to try searching for short-term changes in the magnetic field. Could short-term changes also affect climate? He discovered that on 7 February 1967 and unpredicted blizzard had dropped 35 cm of snow on New York City. The magnetic record showed that after a long period of calm there had been an abrupt change of 40 gamma in the magnetic field strength two and a half days prior to the blizzard.

He studied the record for February 1983. On 4 February 1983 the magnetic recorder had oscillated wildly. Then there was a dip when another freak storm broke. A similar event occurred in 1985. The sad events of October – November 1985 convinced Wollin that he really was onto something. A sudden storm had resulted in a flood which caused the deaths of 39 people. Wollin found that the magnetic trace for the 2-1/2 days leading up to this storm matched exactly that of the storm in 1967. This could not be a coincidence. Wollin wanted to try to make an accurate prediction based on his theory. It was then that he elicited the help of Al Travis. As I mentioned earlier, this led to the successful prediction of a freak storm 3 days later.

Although Wollin’s ability to predict freak storms in North America appears to border on the fantastic, we must not lose sight of a key element here. Wollin’s study of Alaskan data showed that there was a constant relationship between magnetism and air pressure. There is a problem in using his techniques on a global scale. It would mean that global magnetic field changes would cause freak storms everywhere simultaneously.

If this were the case, then surely scientists would have noticed it by now. I would guess that Wollin’s discovery is only valid for North America. Why? I find myself coming back to the possibility of a coupling between the activity of a central Sun and that of the Sun. Could it be that activity on the Sun communicates itself to a central Sun by way of the magnetic field? Could such a central Sun then flare up in sympathy by producing more heat as well as a sudden shock-wave? This shock- wave would then transmit itself from the centre of the Earth to a region nearby on the outer surface.

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This would explain the time delay which Wollin observed. That time was relatively fixed, thereby suggesting that a fixed distance is involved in the transmission of this shock wave. The key as Wollin observed was not the intensity of activity but its rate of change. This might indicate that freak weather storms are caused only by a sudden shock wave. A more gentle change in intensity would not produce an atmospheric shock wave. This would be consistent with the Alaskan weather data. It would mean that shock waves originating from the core of the Earth are capable of affecting Alaskan weather.

Since it seems to affect Alaska, but not Europe or Britain, could we infer then that a Polar Hole in the Earth’s crust lies near Alaska? Could it be that the water vapor in the air which caused the storms on the east coast actually originated inside an Inner Earth? It is worth noting that on 22 January 1986 there was absolutely no evidence whatsoever on the weather charts of an impending storm. Could that be because the factors which were about to cause the storm actually lay beneath the surface of the Earth at that time?

The Swelling Atmosphere

With regard to Mercury we have discussed the possibility that an atmosphere inside a planet may flow out and back in again. With regard to Venus we have seen the various evidence for the rising and falling of the atmosphere across the planet. This ‘breathing’ action seems to indicate that Venus is hollow. Is there any indication that the Earth’s atmosphere rises and falls by considerable amounts? Scientists attribute the demise of the 77 ton Skylab space station to ‘unexpected solar activity’ in the mid-1970s. A series of powerful solar flares erupted on the Sun which then caused the Earth’s atmosphere to swell and Skylab’s orbit began to decay much more rapidly. What would cause the atmosphere to ‘swell’ by many miles? The connection between the Sun’s activity and a considerable rise in the upper atmosphere was totally unexpected – otherwise NASA would have done something sooner. Solar flares are common.

The link between solar flares and the rising atmosphere seems to have been badly known at the time – or the extent of it seemed unappreciated. Of course a rising and falling atmosphere is very strange on a solid world. How can the atmosphere suddenly rise? Will an influx of charged particles which heat the upper layers of the atmosphere really be enough to cause this tremendous swelling? In considering the circumstantial connection between solar flares and the magnetic field I have wondered whether a central Sun’s activities could result in an outpouring of energy in sympathy with the Sun. Perhaps such outpourings cause a high pressure zone inside the planet which then causes air to pour out of the Polar Holes and for the outer atmosphere to then swell. Perhaps such events also cause the high pressure over Alaska and North America.


Folks , for those interested in the science of how sulfuric acid droplets high in the Arctic atmosphere & the POLAR HAZE could point towards Polar openings on Earth & similarly on it's TWIN - Venus , please read both these articles :-



Folks , what an incredible coincidence that Saturn's moon Titan , which has often been compared to "early Earth" , also has a North Polar haze , strikingly similar to that found in the North Polar regions of both Venus and Earth . If this is not a clue to a Polar opening on each of these worlds , then what is ??

Therefore , it is VERY amusing to note that the "Arctic Haze" on Earth (being reported for well over 100 years now , including by the likes of Fridtjof Nansen) , has been linked to "pollution caused by humans" - as far back as 1979 ! They just forgot , that there are no humans to cause pollution , on worlds like Venus and Titan :))

Titan's North Polar Haze

Titan's globally distributed detached haze layer and the moon's north polar hood, both notable details of its thick atmosphere, are clearly seen in this image from NASA's Cassini spacecraft. Titan is 5,150 kilometers across, slightly larger than Mercury.

Titan's globally distributed detached haze layer and the moon's north polar hood, both notable details of its thick atmosphere, are clearly seen in this image from the Cassini spacecraft.

Titan is 5,150 kilometers (3,200 miles) across, slightly larger than Mercury.

The image was taken with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera using a combination of spectral filters sensitive to wavelengths of polarized ultraviolet light centered at 338 nanometers. The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 1.742 million kilometers (1.083 million miles) from Titan and at a Sun-Titan-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 50 degrees. Image scale is 10 kilometers (6 miles) per pixel.

The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging operations center is based at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colo.

For more information about the Cassini-Huygens mission visit http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/. The Cassini imaging team homepage is at http://ciclops.org.

European Smog Linked to Mysterious Arctic Haze

  • Feb. 18, 1979

Credit...The New York Times Archives

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GENEVA, Feb. 17 — Smog and dust from industrial Europe and China may account for a mysterious haze that hangs over Alaska, Greenland and the Arctic Ocean every spring, according to analysis of atmospheric particles that are assumed to cause the haze.

This phenomenon is being cited by participants in the World Climate Conference here as one of the most dramatic examples to date of how activity in one nation can affect weather far beyond its borders.

The conference has brought together from 40 nations specialists in climate and those fields closely affected by the weather, such as agriculture, fisheries, forestry. water supply and economic geography. The meeting, which enters its second and final week Monday, is designed to draft recommendations for a World Climate Program.

Such an international effort would explore natural trends and the role of human activity, notably industrial pollution, in altering climate.

The Arctic haze, which some meteorologists here say becomes as intense as a Los Angeles smog in late winter and spring, began to puzzle weather specialists shortly after World War II. It was observed by a young man named J. Murray Mitchell Jr. during weather reconnaissance flights, code‐named Ptarmigan, conducted over the Arctic Ocean from Eielson Field near Fairbanks, Alaska.

Suspected Origin of Particles

That young man, now Dr. Mitchell, a delegate to the talks here, has become a leading climate specialist in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The recent particle sampling and analysis cited by Dr. Mitchell, Dr. Lester Machta of the same agency and others at the meetings here has been done by Dr. Kenneth Rahn at the University of Rhode Island and Dr. Glenn Shaw at the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska.

They have reportedly found that from 80 to 85 percent of particles collected from the air at Point Barrow, Alaska, are sulfates presumably derived from the burning of high‐sulfur fuels. Also ineluded are traces of vanadium suspected to be of industrial origin and silicate particles that may have been swept up from the Gobi Deserts of China and Mongolia.

Sulfur compounds from the smokestacks of Germany's Ruhr Basin and other industrial regions of Western Europe and Britain are known to blow north, polluting the rains that fall on Scandinavia and making some lakes there so acidic that they are almost devoid of life. Chinese participants in the meetings here say some of their lakes are similarly “dead.” notably near Harbin in the industrial part of Manchuria.

Meteorologists at the Air Force Base in Thule, Greenland, have reported a haze there that may be of similar origin. Likewise, early explorers of the ice‐covered Arctic Ocean, such as Fridtjof Nansen, are said to have encountered a haze in the absence of extensive open water that puzzled them.

That pollution from the United States might also play a role is suggested by the report of Canadian participants in the meeting that haziness in the easternmost provinces of Canada increases sixfold in summer when the flow of air is from New Jersey and New England.

Dr. Mitchell is not convinced that the phenomenon has‐been adequately explained. He says he has seen a less intense version of it at the South Pole Station, high on the Polar Plateau of Antarctica. If the 9,000 feet of ice beneath that station were occupied by polluted air instead of ice. Dr. Mitchell points out, the haze there might be as intense as in the north, where the observations are made close to sea level.



It just goes to show, once again, that:

NASA = Never A Straight Answer!


Yes @deandddd , true ! I also find this "Arctic Haze" to be a very high potential subject in our Hollow Planet Research and now it ALL adds up , for the following reasons :-

  1. A similar "Haze" has been found in the Polar regions of other worlds , most notably Earth's twin - Venus and Titan which has been compared to "Early Earth" .

  2. Manmade pollution simply can NOT be it's root cause or primary reason , because then the same logic MUST be used to explain the Polar haze on Venus and Titan (same laws of nature apply to all planets) , for example

  3. This Arctic haze is the likely TRUE cause of red , brown , green or black colour particles falling on the Arctic snow - the reddish-brown particles could be Sulphates or Nitrates and the black particles are Carbon soot . The greenish particles are probably spores , pollen or organic material of some sort . All of these observations have repeatedly been noted by Arctic explorers for hundreds of years

  4. It seems this haze is ultimately originating from the Polar opening , which explains the various kinds of fine particulate matter , or mysterious "DUST" always falling onto Arctic icebergs and snow , that so perplexed the earliest Arctic explorers and was EXPLICITLY described even by famous Arctic researchers such as Fridtjof Nansen , Dr. Cook etc.

  5. Even above Earth's South Pole , a "Haze" has been noticed , though it is much less prominent than the Arctic , given there is a 9,000 feet thick ice sheet over land (in case of Antarctic) - creating an "artificial 9,000 feet high plateau" over the Antarctic , whereas there is only ocean near North Pole , hence the Arctic haze has been observed starting right from above sea level , i.e. the Arctic ocean's surface itself .